Establishment and maintenance of a laboratory colony of the sandflyPhlebotomus orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae), the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan

Mo’awia M Hassan, Ahmed M. Elhassan, Ahmed M Musa, Omran F Osman, Fathi MA El-Raba’a, Meshesha Balkew, Ibrahim M Elhassan


In this study, which was carried out during June-September 2003, we established a functional colony of Phlebotomus orientalis, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan. The objective was to determine the
biology and life cycle of this sand fly. Female P. orientalis were collected from the field and transported to an insectary in Khartoum. They were maintained under laboratory conditions at a temperature of 25o C and
relative humidity of 75-90 %. The productivity (the numbers of adult sand flies produced by the females of the previous generation) of the colony, the mortality of the different instars of P. orientalis and their developmental
time were investigated. The productivity of the wild P. orientalis females was 78.3%. A significantly high loss was observed between different larval instars (P < 0.001). The highest survival rates of the immature stages
were found to be in the fourth larval instar and pupal stages. Moreover, the survival rates were found to be positively correlated with the progression of the immature stages developments. The whole life cycle raise of
P. orientalis (from oviposition to emergence of adults) was 48-60 days.
*Corresponding author: Department of Vector Biology and Biomedical studies, Tropical Medicine Research
Institute, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, P.O. Box 1304, Khartoum, Sudan. E-mail: moawia65@

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ISSN: 1858-5345