Barriers for implementation of pharmaceutical care practice in community pharmacies in Sudan

Sumia Sir Elkhatim Mohamed, Adil Abdulrahman Mahmoud


Objectives: To assess the status of Sudanese community pharmacies and explore possible barriers for
implementation of pharmaceutical care practice.
Method: A structured, self-administered, piloted questionnaire was distributed to pharmacists in charge
of 274 in randomly selected, community pharmacies in Khartoum State. Demographic characteristics,
availability of certain items in pharmacies and community pharmacists’ views on perceived barriers were
measured in the form of frequency percentages and a 5-point Likert-type scale and descriptive statistical
analysis was used.
Results: Response rate was 67%. Community pharmacies are severely compromised on tools deemed
necessary for implementation of pharmaceutical care e.g., computers and consultation areas. Fourteen out
of 21 barriers were highly rated by more than 70% of respondents. Clinical education (4.27 ± 0.73, 87.5%),
understanding of pharmacist’s new role (4.26 ± 0.79, 85.9%) and concept of teamwork (4.21 ± 0.64, 82.8%)
topped the barriers.
Conclusion: Neither community pharmacies nor community pharmacists are ready to foster proper
implementation of pharmaceutical care. For improved community pharmacy services, reshaping of
pharmacies and overcoming of barriers is crucial. This requires multidisciplinary collaboration of many
stakeholders at different levels. Academics, governmental bodies, and professional organizations can
play a key role on this improvement. Clinical education and training and national practice standards are
urgently needed. Stepwise implementation through pharmaceutical care models such as health promotion
and disease prevention, treatment of minor illnesses and medication review for chronic disease, applied to
specific population e.g., diabetic patients in selected community pharmacies, is recommended.


Barriers for; implementation of; pharmaceutical care ;practice in ;community ;pharmacies in; Sudan

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