Review: IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 responses in children infected with malaria parasite

Nisreen Daffa Alla, Mohamed Yousif Sukkar

Abstract


Immunity    against    malaria    requires    early    production    of    IFN-γ    and    TNF-α    while    excessive    uncontrolled    production    leads    to    malaria    complications.    Severe    malaria    is    an    end    result    of    interactions    of    many    factors    which    determine    the    immune    responses.    Genetic    profile,    repeated    infections,    parasite    influences    and    the    general    health    are    known    contributors.    Involvement    of    multiple    cell    types    and    multiple    cytokines    complicate    the    picture    further.    In    this    review    the    roles    of    cytokines    IL-10,    IFN-γ    and    TNF-α    in    the    pathogenesis    of    severe    malaria    in    children    are    discussed.    Since    severe    malarial    anemia    and    cerebral    malaria    represent    the    vast    majority    of    the    morbidity    and    mortality    cases,    the    review    is    focused    on    cytokines    responses    and    pathogenesis    of    these    two    malaria    complications.    Special    emphasis    is    given    to    factors    reported    to    affect    the    cytokines    levels    in    children    with    malaria.

Keywords


IFN-γ; TNF-α ; IL-10 responses ; children infected;malaria parasite

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References


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