Osmotic Adjustment in Cultivars of C3 (Groundnuts, Arachis hypogaea) and C4 ( Sorghum, Sorghum bicolorL.Moench ) Species in Response to Water Stress

Mazahir Sanosi Mohammed, Elhag Ali Ahmed, Abdalla El Khider Madani

Abstract


A field  experiment  was  conducted  for  two consecutive  seasons  at the experimental  farm , Faculty  of  Agriculture, University  of  Khartoum during  2009/2010  and  2010/2011 to study osmotic adjustment in two  cultivars  of  Groundnut  (C3 plant) Gibaish  and  Madani,  and  two  cultivars  of  sorghum  (C4  plant ) Tabat  and Arfa Gadamak  in response to three irrigation intervals: 7 (W1), 14 (W2) and 21 days (W3); W3 is assumed to be stressful. The treatments were arranged in split plots with three replicates. The irrigation intervals were assigned main plots and cultivars to sub-plots. Measurements of osmotic adjustment were computed from measurements of osmotic potentials and relative water contents of leaves of sorghum and groundnuts. Watering   treatments  had   significant  effect  on  osmotic  potential (O.P) of  cultivars of  sorghum  and  groundnut  resulting  in  significant  increases  in  O.P (becoming  more  negative) . In  sorghum  genotypes , results  revealed   that  the  mean  O.P was -0.3 , -0.3  and  -0.7 MPa   under W1, W2 , and W3  respectively  after  7 weeks  of  growth . After  15  weeks  of  growth  the  mean was  -0.3 , -0.3 and -0.5  MPa   under W1, W2 , and W3  respectively  . In  groundnut  cultivars  the  mean O.P was -0.3 , -0.3  and  -0.6  MPa   under W1, W2 , and W3  respectively  after  7 weeks  of  growth . After  15  weeks  of  growth  the  mean was  -0.3 , -0.3 and -0.5  Mpa   under W1, W2 , and W3  respectively  .In  this  study,  the  highest  (more  negative )  O.P (-0.8 MPa)  was  measured  after  7 weeks  of  growth   in  Tabbat  under  the  21-day  irrigation   interval  in the  first  season . Tabat  may  have,   therefore,  more  capacity  for   osmotic  adjustment .Results of this study have shown that C4  plants (sorghum may have  a higher  capacity  for  osmotic  adjustment  than    C3plants  (groundnut).


Keywords


Groundnut; sorghum;water stress;osmotic adjustment

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmed, F.E., and Ahmed , E.E. 2007 . Crop Production Under Stress Environment , published by : UNESCO Chair of Deseritification . University of Khartoum , Sudan pp 7 .

Assefa, Y., Staggenborg, S.A., and Prasad, V.P.V. 2010. Grain Sorghum Water Requirements and response to Drought Stress. Plant Management Network, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506. Pp. 1-11.

Azevedo Neto, A.D., Nogueira, R.G.M., Melo Filho, P.A., and Santos, R.C. 2010. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Peanut Genotypesto Water Deficit. Journal of Plant Interactions 5(1): 1-10.

Babu , V.R., and Rao , D.V.M. 1983 . Water stress adaptations in the groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) - Foliar characteristics and adaptations to moisture stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 10 : 64 - 80 .

Barrs, H.D., and Weatherley, P.E.1962. A re-examination of the relative turgidity technique for estimating water deficit in leaves.Aust.J.Biol.Sci.15:413-428.

Bazi, S., Haydari, M., and Abasi, F. 2009. Effect of different salinity stresses on osmotic adjustmentand activity of antioxidents in two sorghum genotypes. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural resources 12(46): 9-17.

Blum , A. 2017 . Osmotic adjustment is a prime drought stress adaptive engine in support of plant production. Plant, Cell and Environment 40 (1): 4-10.

Collinson , S.T. , Clawson , E.J. , Azam - Ali , S.N., and Black , C.R.1997 . Effect of soil moisture deficits on the water relations of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) . Journal of Expermental Botany 48 : 887 - 884 .

Cosgrove , D.J. 1981 . Analysis of the dynamic and steady state responses of growth rate and turgor pressure to changes in cell parameters . Plant Physiology 68 : 1438 - 1446 .

Elamin , T.D. 2006 . Joba (Simmondsia chinese "link" SCHNEIDER) Seed germination and seedling Establishment under Sudan Conditions . M.sc. Thesis , Faculty of Agric. University of Khartoum, Sudan.

Girma , F.S., and Krieg , D.R. 1992 . Osmotic adjustment in sorghum . I. Mechanisms of Diurnal osmotic potential changes . Plant Physiol. 99 : 577 - 582 .

Hopkins , W.G., and Huner , N.P.A. 2003 . Introduction to Plant Physiology . John Wiley and Sons. Inc. New York .

Jones , M.M. , Turner , N.C. , and Osmond , C.B. 1981. Mechanisms of drought resistance . In : The physiology and Biochemistry of Drought Resistance in Plant . , L.G. Paleg and D. Aspinall (eds.). Academic Press , New York , USA.

Kambiranda , D.M. , Vasanthaiah , H.KN. , Katam , R. , Ananga , A. ,Basha , S.M. and Naik , K. 2011 . Impact of Drought Stress on Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Productivity and Food Safety In H. Vasanthaiah (ed.) . Plants and Environment . Available from : http://www.intechopen.com .

Kramer , P.J. 1983 . Water Relation of Plants . Academic press , UK . pp. 352 - 395.

Lisar , S.Y.S. , Motafakkerazad . R. , Hossain , M.M. and Rahman , I.M.M. 2012 . Water Stress in Plants : Causes , Effects and Responses . In: Water Stress , M D. Ismail and M. Rahman (eds.). Available from : http://www.intechopen.com .

Liu , F. and Stutzel , H. 2004 . Biomass partitioning , Specific leaf area , and water use efficiency of vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) in response to drought stress . Sciatica Horticulturae 102: 15 - 27 .

Ludlow , M.M. , Santamaria , J.M. and Fukai , S. 1990 . Contribution of osmotic adjustment to grain yield of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Monech under water - limited conditions : II . Post - anthesis water stress . Aust. J. Agr. Res. 41 : 67 - 78 .

Moinuddin, A., and Khanna - Copra , R. 2004 . Osmotic adjustment in chickpea in relation to seed yield and yield parameters . Crop Science Society of America 44 : 449 – 445.

Morgan , J.M. 1995 . Growth and yield of wheat at high soil water deficit in seasons of varying evaporative demand. Field Crops Res. 40: 143 - 152.

Mutava , R.N. 2009 . Characterization of Grain Sorghum for Physiological and Yield Traits Associated with Drought Tolerance . M.sc. Thesis , Kansas State University , Manhattan , Kansas , USA.

Nayyar , H., and Gupta , D. 2006 . Differential sensitivity of C3 and C4 plants to water deficit stress : association with oxidative stress and antioxidants , Environmental and Experimental Botany 58 : 106 - 113 .

Ong , C.K. , Black , C.R. , Simmonds , L.P. and Saffel , R.A. 1985 . Influence of Saturation deficit on leaf production and expansion in stands of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown without irrigation. Annals of Botany 56: 523 - 536 .

Osborne, C.P. and Freckleton , R.P. 2009 . Ecological selection pressures for C4 photosynthesis in the grasses , Proceedings of the Royal Society B . 276: 1753 - 1760.

Peacock , J.M. Azam Ali , S.N., and Mathews , R.B.1988 . Approach to screening for resistance to water and heat stress in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) . In : Arid lands : Today and Tomorrow, E.E. White Head , C.F. Hutchinson. , B.N. Timmerman. and R.A. Varady (eds.), Academic Press : London.

Serraj , R. and Sinclair , T.R. 2002 . Osmolyte accumulation can it really help increase crop under drought condition ? plant cell Environ. 25 : 333 - 341 .

Sliogeryte , K. , Sakalauskiene , S., and Brazaityte , A. 2009 . Response of photosynthetic and biometric indices of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivated under different water stress and temperature conditions . Sodininkyste Darzinkyste 28 : 189 - 197 .

Stirling , C.M. , Black , C.R., and Ong , C.K. 1989 . The response of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to timing of irrigation . II. 14 c-partitioning and growth . J. Exp. Bot. 40 : 1363 - 1373 .

Subbarao , G.V. Chauhan , Y.S. and Johansen , C. 2000 . Patterns of osmotic adjustment in pigeon pea - its importance as a mechanism of drought resistance. Eur. J. Agron. 12 : 239 - 249 .

Taiz , L., and Zeiger , E. 2006 . Plant Physiology . Sinauer Publishers Co. New York .

Thangella, A., Padmavathi, V., and Rao, D.M. 2013. Differential accumulation of omsolytesin 4 cultivars of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under drought stress. Journal of Crop Science and Technology 16: 151-159.

Vitkauskaite , G. and Venskaityte , L. 2011 . Differences between C3 (Hordeum vulgare L.) and C4 (panicum miliaceum L.) plants with respect to thier resistance to water deficit . J. Zemdirbyste Agriculture 98 : 349 - 356 .

Wilson,J.R.,Fischer,M.J.,Schulze,E.D.,Dolby,G.R.andLudlow,M.M.1979. Comparison between pressure volume and dew point hygrometry techniques for determining the water relations characteristics of grass and legume leaves. Oecologia 14:77-88.

Zhou, Y.F., Wang, D.Q., Lu, Z.B., Wang, N., Wang, Y.T. Li, F.X., Xu, W.J., and Huang, R.d. 2013. Impact of water stress on leaf osmotic adjustment and chloroplast ultra-structure of stay green sorghum. The Journal of Applied Ecology 24 (9): 2545- 2550.

Zlatev, Z., and Lidon, F.C. 2012. An overview on drought induced changes in plant growth, water relations and photosynthesis. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 24 (1): 57-72.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.