The Potential of Gamma-Radiated Bacillus Cellulases for Biofuel Production

Elhadi Ali Ibrahim Elkhalil, Tasabeeh Mohamed A.Abu-Zaid Tammar

Abstract


The purpose of the present work was to screen Bacillus strains
with high cellulase activity, study the effect of gamma radiation treatment on cellulase, and optimize the production of cellulase and biofuel. Thirty Two Bacilli were isolated from compost, cow dung, and corn rhizosphere soil,
twenty-five of them were identified as Bacillus using morphological and
biochemical tests. Ten isolates were subjected to gamma radiation treatment to induce mutation, using the doses 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 KGy. The cellulase activities of isolates before gamma radiation treatment ranged between1.42 U/ml (isolate C2 in 48 hrs) and 4.63 Unit/ml ((isolate S4 in 22 hrs incubation period), while the cellulase activities of isolates after gamma radiation treatment ranged between 0.87 U/ml (isolate P10/22hrs/ 2KGy) and 4.30 U/ml (isolate C9/72Hrs/ 3 KGy). Three isolates (C9, S6 and P16) before and after gamma radiation treatments were chosen to study the cellulase enzyme behavior under solid state fermentation (SSF), bioethanol production and to study the biochemical characterization of irradiated and non-radiated Bacillus cellulases. Cellulase was produced under SSF conditions in production media, containing pretreated lignocellulosic substrates from bagasse. The maximum cellulase enzyme activity was 1.8 U/ml from isolate S6 irradiated with 3 KGy. Low cellulase activity was obtained by non- irradiated isolate S6 amounting to 0.15 U/ml under the same incubation conditions. Bioethanol was measured using specific gravity method. The production of ethanol by C9, S6 and P16 amounted to 15.9 %, 24.8 % and 15.9 % (V/V), respectively while the same isolates produced 7.16 % (V/V) ethanol when they were
treated with gamma radiation


Keywords


Gamma-radiation; Bacillus; Cellulase; Bioethanol

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