Mohamed Ahmed Adam Khadam


This paper presents the status of wastewater treatment plants in Sudan which have been subjected to major upgrading & replacement in various stages since 1960. Basically, there are two centralized wastewater treatment plants in Khartoum State (in Khartoum city & in Khartoum North). In other States of Sudan there are few decentralized wastewater treatment plants. The coverage of sewerage systems in Sudan is very low. Accordingly, the reuse practices of the treated wastewater vary with the relevant situation of the operating plants. Legislations and regulations are not properly enforced and that contributed to the weakness in the management aspects of wastewater treatment &reuse practices.
In Khartoum State the two wastewater treatment plants are of capacities at present of 40000 m3/d & 17000 m3/d in Khartoum city & Khartoum North respectively. Previously, the plant in Khartoum city was a conventional attached growth process (trickling filters) which had been replaced by waste stabilization ponds with the treated effluent was being reused for restricted irrigation as a green belt in Khartoum South (Eucolyptus Species). At present the green belt in Khartoum South is not in existence & the land was converted to residential areas. Treated effluent of the plant is at
present partly directed to surface water creating potential environmental hazards.
In Khartoum North, the plant has been upgraded to a conventional activated sludge process (Sequential Batch Reactor)
& the treated effluent of 17000 m3/d is now reused for restricted irrigation in a sub-urban district in Khartoum North at a distance of about 20 Km (Hattab district). For the small decentralized wastewater plants in Khartoum State & other States of the country, the treated effluents are utilized locally for landscaping purposes.
A sewerage master plan is recently launched in Khartoum State in order to put a strategy to improve the situation of
this important infrastructure sector.


Centralized & decentralized plants; restricted irrigation; sewerage master plan

Full Text:



. National Water Corporation, UNICEF Sudan 2009-

Sudan WASH Sector Country Status

Overview AMCOW.

. World Health Organization, UNICEF, United

States, 2012. Progress on Drinking Water and

Sanitation: Update. WHO/UNICEF Joint

Monitoring Program for Water Supply and


. Public Water Corporation, UNICEF Sudan, 2012.

National Water, Sanitation, and hygiene Strategic

Plan, (2012-2016).

. Water Resources of the Sudan, Book, First Edition

, University of Khartoum, Water Research


. Khartoum State Sanitary Corporation (KSSC)

, Khartoum & Omdurman Sewerage &

Sewerage Treatment Projects, Volume (VI),

Watson Hawksley, Khartoum.

. Ministry of Physical Planning & Public Utilities

, Khartoum Master Plan, Meffit, Khartoum.

. Mena-water design documents 2014 Wad Dafeah

Wastewater Treatment Plant.

. Ron Crites & George Tchobaglous, Small &

Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems,

WCB, Mc Graw-Hill 1998

. World Health Organization, 2007. Combating

Waterborne Disease at the Household level, The

International Network to Promote Household

Water Treatment and Safe Storage.

. Sudanese Standardization & & Meteorological

Organization (SSMO), 174 /2008


  • There are currently no refbacks.