Cover Image

Detection and molecular identification of Brucella species infecting Camels in Darfur, Sudan

Zienab A.A. Abdallah, Rania M. H. Baleela


Background: Brucellosis is a wide spread zoonotic disease which is characterized by reduced fertility and abortion in animals and in humans. Although not the primary hosts, camels are highly susceptible to Brucella abortus and B. melitensis. Camel meat and milk are consumed raw some times in Sudan, which may increase the prevalence of brucellosis.

The aim of this study was to screen camels from three districts of  Nyala in South Darfour, Sudan for brucellosis. A sensitive specied-specific PCR assay was adopted for the detection and identification of Brucella spp. in 100 blood samples and 30 milk samples.

Results: 41 camels were positive for Brucella spp.  Out of which, 44% were positive for Brucella abortus, 43% were positive for B. melitensis, and 22% were positive for a co-infection of B. abortus and B. melitensis.The majority of infected samples were collected at the slaughterhouse from camels to be consumed.

Conclusions: The finding of Brucella spp in camels' meat and milk is alarming as Sudanese consumers eat raw camels' liver and drink unpasteurized milk. Therefore the main recommendation of this study is to adopt a sensitive and species-specific PCR protocol for routine detection of brucellosis especially in animals to be slaughtered.


Brucella; species-specific primers; Brucellosis; Camels; Diagnosis; Darfur; Sudan

Full Text:



Gwida, M. M. A. S. (2010). Isolation, identification and typing of Brucella species as zoonotic pathogens by using conventional and molecular biological methods. PhD Thesis, Berlin, Freie Univ.,

Huber B, Scholz HC, Lucero N, Busse HJ. (2009) Development of a PCR assay for typing and subtyping of Brucella species. Int J Med Microbiol. 299(8):563-73. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2009.05.002.

Khamesipour, F., Rahimi, E., Shakerian, A., Momtaz H. (2014). Molecular study of the prevalence of brucella abortus and brucella melitensis in the blood and lymph node samples of slaughtered camels by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Iran. Acta Veterinaria, 64(2), pp.245–256.

Kumar, S., Tuteja, U., Sarika, K., Singh, D., Kumar, A., Kumar, O. (2011): Rapid multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of the Brucella Genus, B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. J Microbiol Biotechnol. (1):89-92.

Mirnejad R, Doust RH, Kachuei R, Mortazavi SM, Khoobdel M, Ahamadi A. (2012): Simultaneous detection and differentiates of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis by combinatorial PCR. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 5(1), pp.24–28. Available at:

Mohammad Hasani S, Mirnejad R, Amani J, Vafadar MJ. (2016): Comparing Rapid and specific detection of Brucella in Clinical Samples by PCR-ELISA and Multiplex-PCR Method. Iran J Pathol, 11(2):144-50.

WHO (1997). The development of new improved brucellosis vaccines: Report of the WHO Meeting. Geneva: WHO Saudai Arabia. Journal of camel Practice and Research.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments

Copyright (c) 2017 Sudan Journal of Science

Sud. J. Sci.                                        ISSN: 1858-5795