Congenital heart disease in a cohort of Sudanese patients with cleft defects
Keywords:Congenital heart disease, macroscopic anomalies, CHD, CP group, Echocardiography
Background and objectives:
Cleft defects are among the most visible congenital defects worldwide and congenital heart disease (CHD)
being one of the most common associated anomalies. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of CHD
among a cohort of Sudanese patients with cleft lip and/or palate.
Patients and Methods:
All patients who presented to Soba University Hospital with cleft lip and/or palate from March 2009 to
March 2015 were included.
Out of 381 patients included; 168 patients (44%) had cleft lip and palate (CLP), 156 (41%) had cleft lip (CL)
and isolated cleft palate (CP) was found in 57 patients (15%). Facial dysmorphic features were identified
in 57 (15%) and cardiac defects in 42 (11%) patients. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) was diagnosed in 16
patients (38%), and ASD in 12 (30.9%). Other macroscopic anomalies were identified in 57 patients (15%)
and were associated with CHD (P<0.001). Significant association was found between the type of cleft and
CHD (P<0.002), as cardiac defects were maximally observed among CP cases (21%) followed by CLP
cases (13%) then CL cases (5.12%). Significant association was also found between facial dysmorphic
occurrence and CHD (P < 0.001).
CHD is a common anomaly in cleft population. The pattern of CHD is consistent with the literature with
VSD being the most frequent. The cardiac defects are most prevalent in CP group. Echocardiography is
justified for screening of CHD due to the relatively higher incidence of CHD among clefts patients than in