Modeling of Oil Spill in the Sudanese Red Sea Coastal Water

Masoud Gamiel Ahmed, Bashier M. Elhassan, K.E. Bashar


This paper presents the development of two-dimensional spilled oil fate model. The model is
used to predict Nile Blend (NB) crude oil behavior and hydrocarbon concentrations on surface
water resulting from oil spills in the Sudanese Red Sea coastal waters. The governing equation
for the model is based on the mass conservation principle and continuity law and considers the
processes of advection, diffusion, evaporation and spreading. Numerical analysis method (finite
difference) was used for the solution of the equations. To verify the predicted results a series of
field experiments has been carried out, and by comparison between measured and calculated oil
concentration, strong correlation was obtained (R2 =0.80).


oil spill; modeling; advection; diffusion.

Full Text:



Fay, J. A., Physical processes in the spread of

oil on a water surface. In proceeding of the

Joint Conference on Prevention and Control

of oil spills, American Petroleum Institute,

pp.463 – 467, 1971.

Fay, J.A., The spread of oil slick on a calm sea.

In: Oil on the sea, D., P. Hoult Plenum Press,

pp.53-63, Plenum Press, New York, 1969.

Fanelop, T. K, Waldman, G. D., Dynamics of

Oil Slicks, AIAA Journal, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp.

-510, 1971.

Hoult, D.P, Oil spreading on the sea. Annual

Review of Fluid Mechanics, pp. 341 – 368,

Buckmaster, J., Viscous- Gravity spreading of

an oil slick, Journal of Fluid Meckanics, Vol.

, No. 3, pp. 481 – 491, 1973.

Spaulding, M.L., V. Kollura, E. Anderson , and

E. Howlett, Application of three dimensional

oil spill model (WOSM/OILMAP) to hindcast

the Brear Spill, Spill Science and Technology

Bulletin, Vol.1, No. 1, p 23-35, 1994.

Elliott, A. J., Oceanographic processes and

NW European shell database. Mar. Pollt.

Bull., 22:pp 548-553. 1991.

Spaulding, M.L.,Oil spill Software with ashell

approach. Sea Technology, 33-40, 1993.

Richard Corsi, Transport processes, Lecture

Notes, Department of Civil Engineering,

University of Texas, 1988.

Bowden, K.F., Physical Oceanography of

coastal waters, Ellis Horwood Series in

Marine Science, pp.124-161, 1983.

Wu, J., Wind induced drift currents. Journal of

Fluid Mechanics 68, 49 – 70. 1975.

Hughes, P., A determination of the relation

between wind and sea-surface drift. Quart. J.

Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 82(354), 494-502. 1956.

Proudman, J., Dynamical Oceanography,

Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1987.

Jerald, L. Schnoor, Environmental Modeling:

Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Water,

Air, and Soil Joan Wiley & sons, inc, 1996

Mackay, D. S., Paterson and S. Madeau,

Calculation of the evaporation rate of volatile

liquids. In proceedings, National conference

on Control of hazardous Materials Spills,

Louisville, Kentuvky, pp. 361-368. 1980.

Nash, J. E. and J. V. Sutcliffe, River flow

forecasting through conceptual models part I,

A discussion of principles, Journal of

Hydrology, 10 (3), 282–290, 1970.

Reddy G.S.,Aspects of a Computational Model

for predicting the flow and pollutant

Transport in Rivers, Estuaries & Seas,

proceeding of the 3rd international

Conference on computer modeling of Seas

and Coastal Regions, Lacruna, Spain, 1997.

Stolzenbach, K. D., Madsen, O.S., Adams, E.

E., Pollack, A.M. and Copper, C.K., A review

and evaluation of basic Teckniques for

predicting the behavior of surface oil slicks,

Mass. Inst. of Technology, Sea Grant Report,

, 1977.

Meyer, J. F. C. A., Movement of Oil slicks in

coastal seas: Mathematical model and

Numerical analysis,pp115-124,1993


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Sudan Eng. Society Journals