Effect of Different Concentrations of Red Sea Water on Germination and Growth of Some Forage Species

Awad Osman Abusuwar, Jamal Ahmed Abbaker


A study was carried out in the Faculty of Agriculture,
University of Khartoum to appraise the possibility of using Red Sea water mixed
with fresh water on the performance of four forage species (Chloris gayana,
Cyampsis tetragonoloba,, Eragrostis tef (tremula) and Sorghum bicolor). The
study consisted of a laboratory experiment to test the effect of different sea water
concentrations on the germination of the tested species using Petri dishes, and a
second pot experiment for evaluating growth performance of the four species
using the same concentrations used in the Petri dish experiment. The different
sea water concentrations used were fresh water only with an EC =0.4 dsm-1
(control), 1: 20 seawater /fresh water with an EC=3.095dsm-1 (level 1), 1:10 sea
water/fresh water with an EC=5.54dsm-1 (level 2) and 1:2.5 sea water/fresh
water with an EC=16.57 dsm-1 (level 3). A Randomized Complete Design
(RCD) with four replications was used in both experiments. The
germination test experiment showed that seeds of Sorghum bicolor and
Cyamopsis tetragonoloba germinated at all levels of salinity used in the
experiment, but seeds of Eragrostis tef and Chloris gayana failed to germinate at
the high level of salinity having an EC=16.57 dsm -1 (level 3). The pot
experiment showed that Chloris gayana and Eragrostis tef grew satisfactorily at
all levels of salinity used but Sorghum bicolor was able to tolerate up to the
second level (EC=5.54 dSm-1)only. However, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba failed to
grow at all levels of salinity used. It was found that plant seed germination and
plant growth significantly (P≤0.01) decreased with increased Sea water in the
irrigation water depending on the type of plant This study open avenues for
utilizing red sea water when diluted with fresh water in the production of certain
forage crops in the red sea shore basin. However, further field experiments are needed to support this finding. The rainwater that is lost during winter as runoff
can be harvested and utilized for this purpose.


Sea Water; Tolerance; Forage Specie

Full Text:



Ahmed, R., and Ismail, S. 1992. Studies on selection of salt tolerant

plants for food, fodder and fuel from world flora. In: Towards the

Regional Use of High Salinity Tolerant Plants,Vol.2:Agriculture

and Forestry under Marginal Soil Water Conditions., H.Lieth and

Al.Masoom (eds.). Pp.295-304,AcademicPublishers, Deodraft,The

Netherlands,Kluwer, 447 pp.

Armitage, F.B.1984. Irrigated Forestry in Arid and Semi-arid Lands:A

Synthesis.IDRC,Ottawa, Canda, 160 pp.

Clipson, N.J.W., Tomas, A.D.,Flowers, T.J. and Wyn Jones R.G.N. 1985.

Salt tolerance in the halophyte Suaeda maritime (L.) Dum. The

mainaenance of turgor pressure and water- potential gradients in

plants growing at different salinities. Planta 165: 392-396.

De Luca M, Garcia Seffino L, Grunberge K, Salgado M, Co´rdoba A,

Luna C, Ortega L, Rodri´guez A, Castagnaro A. and Taliesnik E.

Physiological causes for decreased productivity under high

salinity in boma, a tetraploid Chloris gayana cultivar. Australian

Journal of Agriculture Researsh 52: 903-910.

Deping, Xu., Xiaolan, D., Baiyang, W., Bimei, H., Tuan-Hua, D.H.,and

Ray, Wu. 1996. Expression of Late Embryogenesis Abundant

Protein Gene HVA1 from Barely Confers Tolerance to Water

Deficit and Salt Stress in Transgenic Rice. Plant Physiol. 110:


Dure, L.,1981. Developmental biochemistry of cottonseed embryogenesis

and germination: changing mRNA population as shown in vitro

and vitro protein synthesis. Biochemistry 20: 4162-4168.

El Nour, M., Khalil, A.A.M.and Abdelmajid, E. 2006. Effect of Salinity

on Seed Germination Characteristics of Five Arid Zone Tree

Species. U of K J. Agric. Sci. 14 : 23-31.


  • There are currently no refbacks.