The Bases of Gizzu Plants Adaptation to Water-Limited Environment in North Darfur State, Sudan. 1. Plant Types and Morphological Adaptations.
A field survey was carried out in North Darfur State, to
determine species composition and distribution of Gizzu flora. The
morphological characteristics of a selected group of herbs and grasses in
the Gizzu area and their relation to water-limited adaptation were
investigated. In addition, glass house experiments were conducted to
determine the effect of water stress on the performance of two species of
Blepharis, namely B .linariifolia and B. ciliaris. The morphological bases
of adaptation were discussed. The results indicated that the flora of the
Gizzu district is composed of four types of vegetation namely; permanent
trees and shrubs, perennial herbs and grasses, succulent and ephemeral
(annual) plants. The majority of Gizzu herbs and grasses were commonly
found on light soils (sandy soil) compared to the heavy soils (Wadi soil).
The distribution of the vegetation types was closely associated with the
rainfall and soil types in the Gizzu area. The variations in morphological
characteristic of Gizzu herbs and grasses were due to their adaptive
fitness to defined boundaries of soil and weather. The results also
indicated that, compared to well-watered plants, water-stressed plants of
Belpharis had significantly reduced their shoot and root lengths, number
of branches and leaves per plant. Leaf area and specific leaf area and
mean shoot and total dry weights were also reduced while leaf weight
ratio increased. On the other hand, water stress had no significant effect
on leaf area ratio and leaf length and width.
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