Assessment and Mapping of Wind Erodibility of Soils of South Western Kassala State in Sudan
Replicate surface soil samples were collected at random from
each of forty six geo-referenced (GPS) farms, spread in south west
Kassala State, to generate non-erodible soil particles (NEP > 0.84 mm)
and equivalent wind erodibility (WE) data. Selected soil physical and
chemical properties were measured using standard procedures. The mean
NEP values ranged from 15.0 to 66.9% with a mean of 42.0% and a CV
equal to 33.9%. The equivalent WE ranged from 34.2 to 262.0 with a
mean of 122.6 ton/ha and a CV of 48.7%. Regression analysis gave a
highly significant (P<0.001) increase of NEP with increase of clay (C, r =
0.806), or organic matter (OM, r = 0.961), and significant (P <0.05)
decrease with increase of sand (S, r = - 0.329). The impact of silt (Si) was
not significant. Furthermore, the results showed significant (P<0.001, r = -
0.721) decrease of NEP with increase of [(S+Si)/C)/(C+OM)] or
[(S+Si)/(C+CaCO3)] (P< 0.05. r = - 0.365) and the reverse trends were
obtained for the relations of WE and the various single or compound soil
indicators. Multiple regressions relationships of NEP or WE with clay,
OM, sand, CaCO3, and Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) gave coefficients
of determinations equal to 89 and 86%, respectively. Although OM gave
slightly better accountability of the variation of NEP or WE (92%), the
multiple regression equation are preferred for the prediction of NEP or
WE, because OM unlike the resilient particle-size distribution is sensitive
to water and crop residue management. Furthermore, it is recommended
to use the following equation to predict NEP and look up the equivalent
WE from the standard Table:
NEP (%) = 18.6 + 0.31 Clay (%) + 27.0 OM (%) - 0.05 Sand – 0.51 Ca CO3 (%)
-96.1 SAR (R2 = 0.892)
The spatial variation of NEP and WE was mapped using GIS.
Abdelwahab, M.H., Mustafa, M. A., and Ganawa, E.S. 2009. Spatial
variation of wind erodibility of soils from the Northern State,
Sudan. Sudan Journal of Desertification Research 1 (1): 56-70.
Black, J.M.W. and Chanasyk, D.S. 1989. The wind erodibility of some
Alberta soils after seeding: Aggregation in addition to field
parameter. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 69: 835-847.
Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., Ensminger, J.L., and Clark, F.F. 1965. Methods
of Soil Analysis (part I), American Society of Agronomy, L.E.
White, Inc., Publisher, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Chapman, H.D., and Pratt, P.E. 1961.Methods of Analysis of Soil, Plant
and Water. University of California, Division of Agriculture,
Chepil, W. S. and Woodruff, N. P. 1963. The physics of wind erosion and
its control. Advances in Agronomy 15, 211-302.
Chepil, W.S. 1962. Stubble mulching to control erosion. Proceedings of
the Great Plains Workshop on Stubble Mulch Farming, Linkon,
Nebraska. (Cited in Black. and Chanasyk, 1989)
Harris R.F.; Chesters, G. and Allen, O.N. 1966. Soil Aggregation.
Advances in Agronomy 18: 107-169.
Hassan, A.A. and Mustafa, M. A. 2011. Assesment and mapping of wind
erodibility of Aridisols and Entisols in the Nile State, Sudan.
Sudan Journal of Desertification Research 3 (1): 49-61.
Hayes, W.A. (1965). Wind erosion equation useful in designing North
Eastern crop production. Journal. of Soil and Water Conservation
Ibrahim, Abdel Samad A. and M. A. Mustafa. 2001. Spatial variation of
infiltration rate and related soil properties in a central Gezira soil.
I. Conventional Statistics. University of Khartoum Journal of
Agricultural Sciences 9: 168-182.
Ibrahim, S. 1991. Laboratory Test of Soil Fertility. University of Omar
El-Mukhtar, El-Baida, Libya.
Izzeldin, S.I. and Ahmed, S.H. 2004. A proposed plan of action for
research on desertification in the Sudan: Northern and Nile States.
In: Proceedings of the National Forum of Scientific Research on
Desertification in Sudan, 211-218,. Published by UNESCO Chair
of Desertification Studies, Khartoum University Press, Sudan
Lyles, L. and Tatarko, J. 1968. Wind erosion effects on soil texture and
organic matter. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 41: 191-
Medani, G.H. and Mustafa, M.A. 2004. Wind erodibility of soils from
North Darfur State. University of Khartoum Journal of
Agricultural Sciences 11: 369-384.
Morgan, R.P.C. 1995. Soil Erosion and Conservation. 2nd Edition,
Longman Group Ltd., UK. Essex, England pp 198.
Mustafa, M. A. and Medani, G. H. 2003. Wind erodibility of soils from
Khartoum State. University of Khartoum Journal of Agricultural
Sciences 11: 149-164.
Romken,M.J.M., Roth, C.B. and Nelson, D.W. 1977. Erodibility of
selected clay soils in relation to physical and chemical properties.
Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 41: 954-960.
Wishmeier, W.H. and Mannering, J.V. 1969. Relations of soil properties
to its erodibility. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 23,
Woodruff, N.P. and Siddoway, F. H. 1965. A wind erosion equation. Soil
Science Society of America Proceedings 29: 602 - 608.
- There are currently no refbacks.