Monitoring of the Soil Thermal Regime under Irrigated Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) at Shambat, Khartoum State, Sudan
This study was undertaken in a field cultivated with forage sorghum sown on 15 May, 2013, fertilized with urea at a rate of 100 kg N/fed. and furrow-irrigated every fifteen days. Air and soil temperatures were measured daily at 8, 14 and 15 hours during the period 1 July – 31 August, 2013. Air temperature (Ta) was measured at 2 m above ground level. Soil temperature was measured at depths: 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 cm. At 8 hrs in July, the mean monthly Ta, soil surface (T0), 0-50 cm (T0-50) and 20-50 cm (T20-50) temperatures were 31.7, 30.4, 31.1, and 31.8 oC, respectively. While in August these mean monthly temperatures were successively 28.8, 28.3, 29.0 and 29.7 oC. They were respectively lower than those of July due to higher rainfall and relative humidity of air in August. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the monthly air and soil temperatures were relatively low, ranging between 2.5 and 6.1 in July and 4.6 and 8.4 in August. For both months, the mean daily or monthly soil temperature profile depicted an increase in temperature with increase of depth till 20 cm and then it leveled off to 50 cm. At 14 hrs the mean monthly Ta, T0, T0-50, and T20-50 were respectively 41.5, 47.3, 39.2 and 33.5 oC in July, and 32.7, 36.1, 33.3 and 30.9 oC in August. At this hour for both months, the mean daily or monthly soil temperature decreased with increase of depth till 20 cm and then they leveled off to 50 cm. In both months and all monitoring times the CV of the mean daily or monthly temperature in 20-50 cm was very low. In both months and at the three times, soil monthly profiles fitted a highly significant (p £ 0.01) polynomial equation of the second degree with very high coefficient of determinations (r2) ranging between 0.881-0.987. The daily and monthly soil temperature profiles at 15 hours were nearly similar to those at 14 hrs. At 14 hrs in July the maximum Ta, T0, T0-50, and T20-50 values reached 48.3, 60.7, 46.6 and 33.9, respectively. They were consecutively 44.4, 59.3, 46.6, and 39 oC in August. These relatively high values triggered by climate change may cause heat stress at various crop development stages and consequently reduce its growth and productivity.
Abass, Fatima Awadalla 2015. Soil Temperature Regime Under Some Irrigated Field Crops at Shambat, Khartoum State, Sudan. M.Sc. (Desertification) Thesis, University of Khartoum, Sudan.
Adam, H.S. 2008. Agroclimatology, crop water requirement and water Management, Gezira Printing and Publishing Co. Ltd, Wad Medani, Sudan, 168pp.
Baver, L.D., Gardner, W.H., and Gardner, W.R. 1972. Soil Physics, 4th edition, John Wley and Sons, New York, USA.
Blake, G.R. 1965. Bulk density. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, pp374-390, C.A. Black et al. (eds), Agronomy Mongraph No. 9, American Society of Agronomy, Inc., Publisher, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Chesnokov, V.A., Miroslavota, S.A., and Moshkanova, V.V. 1974. The effect of preliminary heating on CO2 gas exchange of leaves with C3 and C4 pathway photosynthesis. Vestnik Leningrad Skogo Universiteta Biologia 2: 108-115.
Chowdhury, S.I., and Wardlaw, I.F. 1978. The effect of temperature on kernal development in cereals. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 29: 205-223.
Day, F.R. 1965. Particle fractionation and particle-size analysis. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. pp 545-567, American Society of Agronomy, Monograph No. 9.
Downes, R.W. 1968. The effect of temperature on tillering of grain sorghum seedlings. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 19: 59-64.
Downes, R.W. 1972. Effect of temperature on phenology and grain yield on sorghum bicolor. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 23: 585-594.
Eastin, J.D. 1982. Sorghum development and yield. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Potential Productivity of Field Crops under Different Environments, S. Yoshida (ed.), 22-26, IRRI, September, Los Banos, Philippines.
Hatfield, J.L., Boote, K.J, Kimball, B.A., Ziska, L.H., Izaurralde, R.C., Ort, D., and Thomson, A.M., Wolfe, D.W. 2011. Climate impacts on agriculture: implications for crop production. Agron. J. 103: 351–370.
IPCC. (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 2007. Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. and New York, NY.
Khonke, H. 1968. Soil Physics. McGrow-Hill Co., New York, U.S.A.
Kirkham, D., and Powers, W.L. 1972. Advanced Soil Physics, Wiley-Interscience, New York.
Lean, G. 2008. Down to Earth. Publ. Secretaiat of UNCCD, Bonn, Germany.
Marshall, T.J. and Holmes, J.W. 1979. Soil Physics. Chapter 9, p 209-236, Cambridge University Press, London.
McCree, K.J., and Davis, S.D. 1974. Effect of water stress and temperature on leaf size and number of epidermal cells in grain sorghum. Crop Science 14: 751-755.
Mustafa, M. A. 2007. Desertification Processes. Published by UNESCO Chair of Desertification Studies, Sudan, Universiy of Khartoum Printing Press, 230pp.
Mustafa, M.A. 2012. Soil Physical Environment and Plant Growth (in Arabic), pp 425, University of Khartoum Printing Press, Sudan.
Norcio, N.V. 1976. Effect of high temperature and water stress on photosynthesis and respiration rates of grain sorghum. Ph.D. Desertation, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
Oosterhuis, D.M. 2001. Development of a cotton plant. In: Cotton Fiber Development and Processing: an illustrated overview, R. Seagull, and P. Alspaugh (eds.), International Textile Center, Texsas Tech. University, Lubbock, Tx, USA.
Osman, K. M. and Mustafa, M. A. 2009. The Hydrothermal Soil Regime under Gum Arabic Trees (Acacia senegal, L. Wild) in Al-Rawashda Forest, Al-Gedarif State. University of Khartoum Journal of Agricultural Sciences 17: 35-59.
Osman, Kamal El-Din Mohamed 1999. Hydrothermal Soil Regime under Acacia senegal (L.) Wild in Al Gedarif State. M.Sc.(Agric.) Thesis, University of Khartoum, Sudan.
Page, A.L., Millar, R.H., and Ceaney, D.R. 1982. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. 2nd edition. American Society of Agronomy, Inc., Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
Peacock, J.M. 1982. Response and tolerance of sorghum to temperature stress, 145-160, In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sorghum in the Eighties, ICRISAT, 1-7, November 1981, Patancheru, A.P., India.
Quinby, J.R., Heshketh, J.D., and Voigt, R.L. 1973. Influence of temperature and photoperiod on floral initiation and leaf number in sorghum. Crop Science 13: 243-246.
Singh, V., Nguyen, C.T., van Oosterom, E.J., Chapman, S.C., D.R. Jordan, Hammer, G.L. 2015. Sorghum genotypes differ in high temperature responses for seed set. Field Crops Res. 171: 32–40.
Sullivan, C.Y., Norcio, N.V., and Eastin, J.D. 1977. Plant responses to high temperatures, pp 301-307, In: Genetic Diversity in Plants, A, Muhammed, R. Askel, and R.C. vonBorstel (eds), Plenum Publ. Corp., New York, USA.
Tateno, K., and Ojima, M. 1976. Effects of temperature and soil water content during grain filling period on yields of grain sorghum. Proceedings of Crop Science Society of Japan 45:63-68.
van Wijk, W.R., and de Vries, D.A. 1966. The atmosphere and the soil, 17-61. In: Physics of Plant Environment, van Wijk (ed.), pp381, Interscience Publishers, John wiley and sons Corporation, New York, U.S.A.
Vong, N.O., and Murata, Y. 1977. Studies on the physiological characteristics of C3 and C4 crop species. 1. The effect of air temperature on the apparent photosynthesis, dark respiration and nutrient absorption of some crops. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 46: 45-52.
Williams, M.A.J. and Balling, R.C.Jr. (1996). Interactions of Desertification and Climate, Published by Arnold, a member of the Holder Headline Group, 338 Euston Road, London NW1 3BH, pp 270.
Wilson et al 1982.
- There are currently no refbacks.