Osmotic Adjustment in Cultivars of C3 (Groundnuts, Arachis hypogaea) and C4 ( Sorghum, Sorghum bicolorL.Moench ) Species in Response to Water Stress
A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive seasons at the experimental farm , Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 to study osmotic adjustment in two cultivars of Groundnut (C3 plant) Gibaish and Madani, and two cultivars of sorghum (C4 plant ) Tabat and Arfa Gadamak in response to three irrigation intervals: 7 (W1), 14 (W2) and 21 days (W3); W3 is assumed to be stressful. The treatments were arranged in split plots with three replicates. The irrigation intervals were assigned main plots and cultivars to sub-plots. Measurements of osmotic adjustment were computed from measurements of osmotic potentials and relative water contents of leaves of sorghum and groundnuts. Watering treatments had significant effect on osmotic potential (O.P) of cultivars of sorghum and groundnut resulting in significant increases in O.P (becoming more negative) . In sorghum genotypes , results revealed that the mean O.P was -0.3 , -0.3 and -0.7 MPa under W1, W2 , and W3 respectively after 7 weeks of growth . After 15 weeks of growth the mean was -0.3 , -0.3 and -0.5 MPa under W1, W2 , and W3 respectively . In groundnut cultivars the mean O.P was -0.3 , -0.3 and -0.6 MPa under W1, W2 , and W3 respectively after 7 weeks of growth . After 15 weeks of growth the mean was -0.3 , -0.3 and -0.5 Mpa under W1, W2 , and W3 respectively .In this study, the highest (more negative ) O.P (-0.8 MPa) was measured after 7 weeks of growth in Tabbat under the 21-day irrigation interval in the first season . Tabat may have, therefore, more capacity for osmotic adjustment .Results of this study have shown that C4 plants (sorghum may have a higher capacity for osmotic adjustment than C3plants (groundnut).
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