Water Requirement and Water Productivity of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) Crop in Two Agro-ecological Zones of Sennar State, Sudan

Mohamoud A. Mohamoud, Abdalla S. Abdalla, Muna M. Elhag, Lotfie A. Yousif


A field experiment was conducted in two agro-ecological zones in Sennar State, Sudan during seasons2014/2015 and 2015/2016to estimate crop water requirement and water productivity of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) under three farming systems (conventional farming (CF), conservation agriculture (CA) and Water Harvesting (WH).The agro-ecological zones were semi-arid zone (Sennar Research Station Farm) and semi-humid zone (Abu Naama Research Station Farm). The Weather and crop data were collected during the study period. CROPWAT 8.0software was used to compute reference evapotranspiration (ETO), crop factor (Kc) and the crop water requirement  (ETC). The analysis showed that the average values of ETO rangedbetween1.2 and5.0 mm/day in semi-arid zone, and between1.56and4.86 mm/day in the semi-humid zone. The average Kc values during the initial, development, mid-season and late-season stages were 0.45, 0.79, 1.08and 0.84, respectively, while the average values of cowpea water requirements during initial, development, mid-season and late-season stages were 37.4, 71.3, 149.5 and 77.0 mm for the semi-arid zone and 34.1, 65.8, 130.6 and 77.3 mm for the semi-humid zone. The average water requirement was 3350 m3/ha and 3050 m3/ha in the semiarid and semi-humid zones, respectively. The water productivity for cowpea crop in the semi-arid zone was 0.33 kg/m3 and 0.35 kg/m3 in semi-humid zone. The WH and CA farming system gave better results compared to the CF for cowpea production in dryland areas of Sennar state.


Reference evapotranspiration (ETO); crop factor (Kc); semiarid zone; semi-humid zone; cowpea crop

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Adam, H. S. 2005. Agro-climatology, Crop Water requirement and Water Management, Gezira Company for printing and publishing, Wad Medani, Sudan.





29 0.3 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.38

CF CA WH Average

Water productivity (kg/m3)

Farming systems

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