Hydraulic Performance of Drip Emitters under Different Conditions and Water Qualities

Ali Widaa M. Elamin, Amir Bakheit Saeed, Abbas E. Rahma, Tarig Elgamry


The aim of this study was to investigate the hydraulic performance of the drip emitters under different environmental conditions and irrigation water qualities. Two experiments were carried out under different conditions in the demonstration farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, during May 2011 to February 2012. The first experiment was achieved under controlled condition (indoor) with different emitter types (Black on-line, Blue on-line and Inline) and levels of water salinity(0.20, 0.35, 3.5, 5.0, and 5.75 ds/m), while the second experiment was conducted under field (outdoor)condition and comprised different emitter types (Blue on-line and Inline) and interspacing (0.5 and 0.3 m). The emitters hydraulic performances were evaluated with reference to percentage of discharge reduction (R%), coefficient of discharge variation (CV%), Christiansen’s uniformity coefficient (CU%), emission uniformity (EU%) and clogging percentage (Pclog%). Analysis of variation showed that there were significant differences (P≤ 0.05) among the measured parameters. The results indicated that the black and blue pressure compensating emitters showed the highest performance in comparison with the inline emitters at P ≤ 0.05, in both experiments. On the other hand, the blue pressure compensating emitters showed the lowest clogging percentage (Pclog%) with regard to the five levels of water salinity 0.20, 0.35, 3.5, 5.0, and 5.75 ds/m, respectively. While in the outdoor experiment the 0.5m emitter inter-spacing showed higher values of discharge (q) uniformity coefficient (CU)% and lower values of reduction of discharge (R)% as compared with 0.3m emitter interspace, and both emitter interspaces showed no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in between  for values of emission uniformity (EU)% and Clogging percentage (Pclog). The study concluded that the emitter type, water quality and emitter interspacing are the crucial factors affecting the hydraulic performance of drip irrigation systems.


Irrigation system; clogging; emitter;water quality;interspaces

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