Effect of Postmortem Aging Period on the Meat Quality, Sensory Properties and Total Bacterial Count of Western Baggara Bulls Meat

Ikhlas Ahmed Nour, Salih Ahmed Babiker


A study was conducted to investigate the effect of postmortem aging period (1, 5, 10, and 15 days) on meat quality of bovine muscles, Longissimus dorsi, Semimembranosus and Semitendinosus, held at 2°C. Fourteen western Baggara bulls were used. The hindquarters were immediately chilled at 2°C for 24 hours, Longissimus dorsi, Semimembranosus and Semitendinosus were cold deboned, each one was divided into four parts and aged immediately after deboning for 1, 5, 10 and 15 days at 2°C, chemical composition, bacterial load and muscle eating quality were determined. Extractable myofibrillar proteins, non-protein nitrogen and water holding capacity were increased (P<0.001), while the extractable sarcoplasmic proteins significantly (P≤0.001) decreased; cooking loss and colour rating scores decreased and tenderness increased numerically with increasing aging period to 15 days. Increasing aging period from 5 to 15 days resulted in low flavour rating and increased juiciness but non-significantly for the three muscles studied. The total bacterial counts values increased slightly with increasing the aging period but the differences between days 1 (control), 5 and 10 were not significant (P>0.05) it was only significant between day 15 of aging and the other aging times for all the muscles. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a gradual decrease and disappearance of the troponin-T and a built up of a 30 kd component seems to be the major changes during postmortem aging. Complete disappearance of toponin-T and appearance of a 30 kd component at day 10 of aging and continue to be observed at day 15. Aging of Baggara bulls carcasses for 10 days at 2°C is recommended.


Bovine muscles; quality, sensory properties; aging

Full Text:



Aalhus, J. L.; Dugan, M. E. R.; Robertson, W. M.; Best, D. R. and Larsen, I. L.( 2004). A within-animal examination of postmortem aging for up to 21d on tenderness in the bovine longissimus thoracis and semimembranosus muscles. Can. J.Anim. Sci., 84: 301-304. Aberle ,E. D. and Merkel, R. A. (1966). Solubility and electrophoretic behavior of some proteins of postmortem aged bovine muscle J. Food Sci., 31:151. Adcock, L.A.; Sawyer, J.T.; Lambert,B.D.; Jones, T. N.; Ball , J.; Wyatt, J. R. P. and Jackson, J. (2015). Aging implications on fresh muscle traits of Certified Angus Beef steaks. Journal of Animal Science Vol. 93 No.( 12): 5863-5872 Babiker, S. A. and Lawrie, R. A., (1983). Postmortem electrical stimulation and high temperature aging of hot deboned beef. Meat Sci., (8): 1-20 Borch, E. (1989). Word Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists Xth International Symposium in Stockholm 163:170. Bouton, P.E.; Ford, A.L.; Harris, P.V. and Shaw, F.D. (1978). Effect of low voltage stimulation of beef carcasses on muscle tenderness and pH. J. Food Sci. 43: 1392 Bowker ,B.C.; Fahrenholz, T.M.; Paroczay, E.W.; Eastridge, J.S. and Solomon ,M.B. (2008). Effect of hydrodynamic pressure processing and aging on the tenderness and myofibrillar proteins of beef strip loins. Journal of Muscle Foods, 19 (1):74–97 Campbell, R.E.; Hunt M.C. and Chambers L.P, (.2001). Dry-aging effects on palatability of beef Longissimus muscle. J Food Sci; 66:196–199. DeGreer SL; Hunt MC; Bratcher CL; Crozier-Dodson BA; Johnson D. E and Stika JF (2009).Effects of dry age of bone-in and boneless strip loins using two aging processes for two aging times. Meat Sci; 83:768–774 Dugan, M.E.R.; Aalhus, J. L.; Rolland, D. C. and Gibson, L.L. (2004). Effects of storage time and temperature on beef free amino acid levels. Canadian Meat Science Association, Ottawa, ON. Follett, M,J; Norman, G.A. and Ratcliff, P.W. (1974) The ante-rigor excision and air cooling of beef semimembranosus muscles at temperatures between -5C and +15C J. Food Technol , 9:509. Gasperlin L.; Zlender B. and Abram V. (2001). Colour of beef heated to different temperatures as related to meat aging. Meat Sci., 59:23–30. Geesink, G.H.; Kuchay S.; Chishti A.H. and Koohmarie M. (2006). μ-Calpain is essential for postmortem proteolysis of muscle proteins. J. Anim. Sci., 84: 2834-2840. Gorraiz, C.; Beriain, M. J.; Chasco, J. and Insausti, K.( 2002).Effect of aging time on volatile compounds, odor, and flavor of cooked beef from Pirenaica and Friesian bulls and heifers, J.Food Sci., 67: 91 6- 922. Grau ,R. and Hamm G. (1953) "Eine enfache Methode zur Bestimmung der Wasserbindung im Muskel," Die Naturwissenschaften, vol. 40, pp. 29-30. Griffin, C.L.; Savell, J.W.; Smith,G.C.; Rhee, K.S. and Johnson, H.K. (1985).Cooking times, cooking losses and energy for cooking lambs roasts. J. Food quality, 8: 69-73. Gruber, S. L.; Tatum, J. D.; Scanga, J. A.; Chapman, P. L.; Smith, G. C. and Belk, K. E. (2006). Effects of postmortem aging and USDA quality grade on Warner-Bratzler shear force values of seventeen individual beef muscles. J. Anim. Sci., 84:3387- 3396 Huang, F.; Huang, M., ; Xu, X. and Zhou, G. (2011). Influence of heat on protein degradation, ultra structure and eating quality indicators of pork. J.Sci.Food Agric., 91(3):443-448.

Huff-Lonergan, E.; Tomiko, M.; Dirk, D.B.; Parrish, F.C.Jr.; Olson, D.G. and Robson, R.M. (1996). Proteolysis of specific muscle structural proteins by µ-caplain at low pH and temperature is similar to degradation in postmortem bovine muscle. J. Anim. Sci, 74: 993. Huff-Lonergan, E. and Lonergan,S.M. (2005). Mechanisms of water-holding capacity of meat: The role of postmortem biochemical and structural changes. Meat Sci., 71: 1 94_204. Huff Lonergan, E.; Zhang W. and S. Lonergan M.,(2010). Biochemistry of postmortem muscle-Lessons on mechanisms of meat tenderization. Meat Sci., 86:184-195 Jayasooriya S. D.; Torley P. J.; D’Arcy B. R. and Bhandari B. R. (2007) Effect of high power ultrasound and aging on the physical properties of bovine Semitendinosus and Longissimus muscles. Meat Sci., 75:628–639 Koohmaraie M.and Geesink G.H.(2006).Contribution of postmortem muscle biochemistry to the delivery of consistent meat quality with particular focus on calpain system. Meat Sci., 74: 34-43. Koohmaraie, M.; Kennick W.H.; Elgasim E.A. and Anglemier A.F. (1984). Effect of prerigor pressurization on the activity of calcium activated factor. J. Food Sc. , 49(3) :680-684 Lametsch R.; Karlsson A.; Rosenvold K.; Andersen H. J.; Roepstorff P. and E. Bendixen, (2003) Postmortem proteome changes of porcine muscle related to tenderness, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 24, pp. 6992–6997 Lawrie, R.A. (1991).Meat Science 5th ed. Pergarmon Press Ltd. Headington Hill Hall oxford. Melton, S. L. (1990). Effects of feeds on flavor of red meat: A review. J. Anim. Sci., 68: 4421- 4435. Miller, M.F.; Carr, M.A.; Ramsey, C.B.; Crockett, K.L. and Hoover, L.C., (2004). Consumer threshold for establishing the value of beef tenderness, J. Anim. Sci., 79: 3062-3068. Mohrhauser, D.A.; Underwood K.R. and Weaver A.D.( 2011). In vitro degradation of bovine myofibrils is caused by μ-calpain, not caspase-3.J.Anim. Sci., 89: 789-808. Newton, K.G. and Gill, C.O. (1978). Storage quality of dark,firm,dry meat . J. Appl. Environ.Bacteriol., 36:375-376 Obuz E.; Dikeman M.E. and Loughin T.M.,( 2003). Effects of cooking methods, reheating, holding time, and holding temperature on beef longissimus lumborum and biceps femoris tenderness. Meat Sci., 65: 841-851. Panea ,B.; Sañudo, C.; Olleta, J. L. and Civit, D. (2008). Effect of aging method, aging period, cooking method and sample thickness on beef textural characteristics; Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(1) : 25-32, ISSN: 1695-971-X Peng Li ; Tiantian Wang; Yanwei Mao; Yimin Zhang; Lebao Niu; Rongrong Liang; Lixian Zhu ; and Xin Luo (2014). Effect of ultimate PH on postmortem myofibrillar protein degradation and meat quality characteristics of chinese yellow crossbreed cattle, Scientific World Journal, p1-8 Polidori, P.; Trabalza Mariucci, M. ; Fantuz F.; Renieri, C. and Polidori, F. (2000). Tenderization of wrther lambs meat through pre-rigor infusion of calcium ions. Meat Sci. , 55 (2): 197 – 200 Rhee, M. S.; Ryu Y. C.; Imm J. Y. and Kim B. C. (2000). Combination of low voltage electrical stimulation and early postmortem temperature conditioning on degradation of myofibrillar proteins in Korean native cattle (Hanwoo). Meat Sci., 55:391-396. Sañudo C.; Macíe E.S.; Olleta J.L.; Villarroel M.; Panea B. and Albertí P., (2004). The effects of slaughter weight, breed type and aging time on beef meat quality using two texture devices. Meat Sci., 66: 925-932. Stetzer, A. J.; Cadwallader, K.; Singh, T. K.; McKeith, F. K.and Brewer, M. S. (2008). Effect of enhancement and aging on flavor and volatile compounds in various beef muscles, Meat Sci., 79: 1 3-19 Troy, D. J. and Kerry, J. P. (2010). Consumer perception and the role of science in the meat industry. Meat Sci., 86 (1): 214 – 226 Veselka ,V.; Teodora , P. and Penka, M. (2010) . Comparison of the postmortem changes in the Myofibrillar structure of bovine muscle Longissimus dorsi. Archiva zootechnica, 13(2:47-53 Warriss, P. D. (2000). Meat Science, An introductory text. Oxon U.K: CABI Publishing X Li ; Babol, J.; Wallby A. and Lundström K. (2013). Meat quality, microbiological status and consumer preference of beef gluteus medius aged in a dry ageing bag or vacuum. Meat Sci., 95(2):229-34 Xiong, Y. L.; Moody W. G.; Blanchard S. P.; Liu G. and Burris W. R. (1996). Postmortem proteolytic and organoleptic changes in hot-boned muscle from grass- and grain-fed and zeranol-implanted cattle. Food Res. Int., 29:27–34. Yancey, E. J.; Grobbel, J. P.; Dikeman, M. E.; Smith, J. S.; Hachmeister, K. A.; Chambers, IV. E. C.; Gadgil, P.; Milliken,G. A. and Dressler, E. A. (2006). Effects of total iron, myoglobin, hemoglobin, and lipid oxidation of uncooked muscles on livery flavor development and volatiles of cooked beef steaks. Meat Sci., 73: 680-686. Yong S.K.; Chin N.L.; Michael W.D.and Glen K.F.(2007).Improving tenderness of forage-finished beef using a low voltage electrical stimulator.Food Safety and Technology ,-22: 1-6


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 243456

U. of  K. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Prod.