Effects of parity order, age at first calving and season of calving on productive performance of Friesian crossbred cattle in Sudan

El- Nazeir B. A, Mohammed A.M, El khidir O. A, Atta M.


This study was carried out to determine the effects of parity orders, season of calving and age at first calving on total milk yield (TMY) and lactation length (LL) in a herd of Friesian crossbred cattle in Sudan. Data obtained from records from 2002 to 2011. The average TMY and LL were 3988.2 ± 36.2 kg and 355.8 ± 2.4 days, respectively. The TMY and LL were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) affected by parity orders. Highest TMY reported at 6th parity and longest lactation was recorded at 4th parity. Moreover, season of calving was significantly (P ≤0.01) affected on TMY and LL. In addition higher average values for TMY and LL were obtained in wet summer. The age at first calving had a significant (P≤ 0.01) effect on TMY, while heifers calved in late age were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) higher in milk yield than heifers calved in medium and early age.


Parity order; age; season; productive performance; crossbred cattle

Full Text:



Abubakar, B.Y., McDowell, R.E. and Van Veleck, L.D. (1986). Genetic evaluation of Holstein in Columbia. J. Dairy Sci., 69: 1081-1086.

Abuzaid, A. H. (1999). Critical study on the performance of exotic dairy cows under Butana Dairy Farm conditions in Sudan.M. Sc. Thesis, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

Ageeb, A.G. and Hayes, J.F. (2000).Reproductive responses of Holstein – Friesian cattle to the climatic conditions of central Sudan. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 32(4): 233.

Ageeb, A.G. and Hiller, J.K. (1991). Effect of crossing local Sudanese cattle with British Friesian on performance. Bulletin of a Heal and Production in Africa. 39 (1): 69-76.

Ahmed, M. A., Teirab, A. B., Musa, L.A. and Peters, K.J. (2007). Milk production and reproduction traits of different grades of zebu x Friesian crossbreds under semi-arid conditions. Arch. Tierz., 50 (3): 240-249.

Ali, T.E., Ahmed, F.A. and Ombabi, Y.A. (1988). Productivity of crossbred Zebu cattle with different level of Friesian blood. Sudan J. Anim. Prod., 1(2): 69-79.

Alnajjar, K. A. (1997). Genetic improvement in dairy cattle. M. Sc. Thesis Fac. Agric. Ain Shams, Univ. Egypt.

Badri, T. M., Atta, M., Ibrahim, M.T., and Gubartalla, K.A. (2011). Genetic factors affecting production potential of Butana dairy cows at Atbara Research Station, Sudan. Res. Opin. Anim. Vet.Sci, 1(7): 429-433.

Badri, T.M., Atta, M. Mohamed, T. I. and Gubartalla, K.A. (2011). Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting lactation curve components of Sudanese Butana dairy herd. ROVAS, 1(4): 193-197.

Bhatngar, K.C., Agarwall, S.B. and Singh, K. (1986). The effect of non–genetic factors on production performance characteristics of crossbred cows. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 39: 261–268.

Cismas, T., Acaticãi, S., Cziszter, I., Erina, S., Baul, S., Tripon, I. and Rãduan, G. (2012). Study regarding the influence of parity, age at first calving and farm management on the milk yield and composition in Romanian Black and White cows. Anim. Sci. and Biotech., 45 (2): 289-293.

Dimov, G., Albuqueque, L.G., Keown, J.F. Van Vleck, L.D. and DNorman, H. (1995). Variance of interactions effects of sire and herd for yield traits of Holstein in California, New York and Pennsylvania with an animal model. J. Dairy Sci., 78: 939-946.

El–Arian, M. N., El-Ayek, M.Y., Khattab, A.S. and Abo Gamoes, A. (2001). Estimation of genetic parameters and genetic trends of some milk production traits in a commercial herd of Holstein Friesian cows in Egypt. J. Agric. Sci. Mansouara Univ., 26: 1975.

El emam, M. B. and Abu Nekheila, A.M. (2012). Some productive traits of crossbred dairy cows in the farm of University of Khartoum, Sudan.Emir. J. Food Agric., 24 (2): 155-158.

El-Nazeir. B. A., Abu Nikhaila, A. M., and Abu Eissa, H.I. (2004). Management and husbandry practices in some dairy farms in Khartoum State Sudan. J. Anim. Prod., 18: 11 –19.

El-Owni, O.A.O. and El-Zubeir, Ibtisam, E.M. (2006). Effect of mastitis on milk yield, peak yield and lactation length in Friesian dairy cows in Sudan. U. of K.J. Agric. Sci., 14 (2): 301-312.

Gahlot, G.G, Pank, K.P. and Kachawaha, R.N. (2000). Variation in production performance of Tharparkar cows in North – Western Rajasalthan. Indian J. of Anim. Sci., 70(7): 718–722.

Gatchearle, P. L., Mitkari, K. R., Mule, R. S., Baswde, S.V. and Adangale, S.B. (2009). Effect of age at first calving at first calving on lactation milk yield and lactation length. Indian J. Anim. Res., 43(3): 228-229.

Ibrahim, K., Can, U., Attilem K. and Yavuz A. (2003). Comparative analysis of milk yield and reproductive traits of Holstein-Friesian cows born in Turkey or imported from Italy and kept on farms under the Turkish-ANAFI project. Italian J. Anim., 2 (2): 141-150.

Irshad, A., Tarig, M.M., Bajwa, M.A., Abbas, F., Isani, G.B., Soomro, G.H., Waheed, A. and Khan, K.U. (2011). A study on performance analysis of Holstein-Friesian cattle herd under semi-intensive management at Pishin Dairy Farm Balochistan. J. Institute Sci. and Technol., 1: 53-57.

Mahassin, A. M. and Abu Nikhaila, A.M. (2004).Characterization of a small herd of Butana cattle Northern Sudan. Sudan J. Anim. Prod. 18: 31- 41.

Maluit, B.D. (2010). Influence of season of calving, year of calving and parity order on the lactation performance of Kenana×Friesian crossbred dairy cows reared under intensive system. M. Sc. Thesis, Sudan University of Science and Technology. Sudan.

Medani, M.A. (2003). Animal Resources and Animal Production in the Sudan.2nd Edition Univ. of Khartoum Printing Press (in Arabic).

Msanga, Y.N., Bryant, M.J., Rutam,I.B., Minja, F.N. and Zylstra, L.(2000). Effect of environmental factors and of the proportion of Holstein blood on the milk yield and lactation length of crossbred dairy cattle on smallholder farms in North-east Tanzania. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 32 (1):23-31.

Mokhtar, S.A. (1995). Relationship of milk production with days open and days dry in Holstien cattle in Egypt. J. Agric. Sci. Mansouara Univ., 20 (7): 3305–3314.

Mokhtar, S.A., El-Amy, M.A. and Amin, A. (1993).Evaluation of productive and reproductive performance of some dairy cattle breed in Egypt. Egyptian J. Animal Prod., 30 (2): 161.

Msange, Y.N., Bryant, M.J., Rutam, I.B., Minjia, F. N. and Zylstra, l. (2000). Effect of environmental factors and of the proportion of Holstein blood on the milk yield and lactation length of crossbred dairy cattle on smallholder farms in North–East Tanzania. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 32 (1): 23-31.

Mutaz, M.M. (2006).A study on the effect of parity order, season and period of calving on reproductive and productive performance of Holstein–Friesian cows in Sudan. M. Sc. Thesis. University of Khartoum.

Rahmatalla, S.A. (2002). Productive, reproductive and nutritional factors leading to culling of cows in three dairy farms in Khartoum North. M. Sc. Thesis, University of Khartoum.

Sadek, R.R., Helali, E.A, Safwat, M. A., Ibrahim, S. A. M. and bdEl–Fatah, A.A. (1994). Evaluation of Friesian cattle performance in commercial farms in Egypt. Egyptian, J. Anim. Prod. 31 (1): 43.

Saeed, A. M., Ward, F.A., Light, D., Durkin, J. W. and Wilson, R.T. (1987).Characterization of Kenana cattle at Um-Banein, Sudan. ILCA Research Report No.16 Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.

Salem, A.Y. and Abdel-Raouf, A. (1999). Genetic study of fertility and milk production traits in a commercial herd of Holstein Friesian cattle in Egypt. J. Agric. Res. Tanta Univ.25: 204.

StatSoftInc (2011) STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 10. www.statsoft.com.

Tadesse, M. and Dessie, T. (2003). Milk production performance of Zebu Holstein Friesian and their cross in Ethiopia. Livestock Res. Rural Develop., 15 (3):1–11.

Tekerli, M. and Kocak, S. (2009). Relationships between production and fertility traits in first lactation and life time performances of Holstein cows under subtropical condition.Archiv Tierzucht., 52 (4): 364–370.

Wade, K.M. and Van Valeck, L.D. (1990). Genetic parameters for production traits in California, New York and Wisconsin. J. Dairy Sci., 72 (5): 1280–1285.

Wala, M.F. and El Zubeir, I.E.M. (2004). The interaction between prolonged lactation length and some productive and reproductive traits in Butana dairy farm. University of Khartoum, J. Agri. Sci., 12 (3): 430–443.

Yousif, I. A., Fadel – Moula, A. A. and Abu-Nekheila, A. M. (1998). Productive performance of crossbred cattle in the Sudan.1.Lactation performance. Proc., 8th Arab Veterinary. Conf., Khartoum March, 1998.524–539.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments

ISSN: 243456

U. of  K. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Prod.