Physico-Chemical Properties and Digestibility of Watermelon Vines Ensiled with Urea and Molasses

Balgees A. Atta Elmnan, Awatif B. A. Mohamed, Fadel Elseed A. M.

Abstract


An experiment was undertaken to estimate some physico-chemical properties and nutrients digestibility of watermelon vines ensiled with 2% urea and four different levels of molasses (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%) for 30 days. A completely randomized design with 4X5 (4 levels and 5 incubation period) for factorial arrangements was adopted for executing the experiment. The ensiled materials before and after 8, 15, 22, 30 days of incubation were tested for chemical composition, lactic and acetic acids concentration. In-vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), in-vitro crude protein digestibility (IVCPD) and in-vitro crude fiber digestibility (IVCFD) were measured at the last day of the fermentation period. Addition of molasses and fermentation period had significant (P<0.05) effects on physico-chemical properties of the silage of watermelon vines. The pH value of the silage with 0% molasses was relatively higher than in silage with 15% of molasses and decreased with increasing fermentation period. The dry matter, crude protein contents, lactic and acetic acids concentration were significantly (P<0.05) increased with increasing molasses levels and fermentation times while crude fiber content was decreased. The highest values of IVDMD, IVCPD and IVCFD were recorded by silage supplemented with 15%, 10% and 5% of molasses, whereas the lowest value was recorded by 0% of molasses. The increase of molasses levels resulted in significant (P<0.05) improvement of physical characteristics (color and smell) of watermelon vines silage. This study indicated that the addition of molasses enhanced the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of the silage of watermelon vines incubated with urea.


Keywords


watermelon vines; silage; lactic; acetic acid; digestibility

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alamin, H. (2008). Nutritional evaluation of sorghum Abu 70 (sorghum bicolor) Forage and baggase silage for sheep. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Khartoum.

AOAC (1990). Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Official methods of analysis 16th edition. Gaithersburg, M D., USA.

AOAD (2012). Arab organization Agricultural statistical year book.Volume No.32, Khartoum, Sudan.

AttaElmnan, B. A., Fadal Elseed, A. M. and Salih, A. M. (2007). Effect of urea or ammonia solution on bagasses chemical composition and rumen digestibility of bagasse. J. App. Sci. Res. 3 (11): 1359-1362.

AttaElmnan, B. A., Fadal Elseed, A. M. and Salih, A. M. (2009). Effect of ALbizia lebback or wheat bran supplement on intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation of ammoniated baggase. J. App. Sci. Res. 5 (8):1002-1006.

AttaElmnan, B. A., Fadal Elseed, A. M. and Salih, A. M. (2011). Effect of supplementing a basal diet with treated or untreated bagasse with different level Albizia lebback on intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. Pakistan J. Nut. 10 (12): 1149-1153.

Bakshi, M. P. S., Wadhwa, M. , Kaushal, S. and Ameir, A. (2006). Nutritional value of ensiled fruit and vegetable wastes. In: Improving animal productivity by supplementary feeding of multinutrient blocks, controlling internal parasites and enhancing utilization of alternate feed resources. Part II: Efficient utilization of alternate feed resources. Eds Makkar, H.P.S. and Smith, T., International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria. 191-196.

Becker, R. , Wing, B. J. M. , Arnold, P. T. D. , McCall, J. T. and Wilcox, C. J. (1970). Silage investigation in Florida. Bulletin, 734. Florida agricultural Experiment.Station Gainesville.

Bolsen, K. K., Ashbell, G. and Weinberg, Z. (1996). Silage fermentation and silage additives. Asian- Aust. J. Anim. Sci. (9): 483- 491.

Bostami, A. B. M. R., Khan, R. I. Amin, M. R. , Sarker, N. R.; Pervage, S. and Hasan, K. (2008). Effect of addition of molasses and period of preservation on physical and nutritional properties of maize stover silage. Bangladesh J. Anim. Sci. 37 (2): 42 – 51.

Bureenok, S. , Namihira, T. , Tamaki, M. , Mizumachi, S.; Kawamoto, Y. and Nakada, T. (2005). Fermentative quality of Guinea grass silage by using fermented juice of the epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB) as a silage additive. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. (18):807-813.

Dalaly B K and AL-Hakim SH (1987). Food analysis 1st edition, Mosul, Iraq.

Elpat Evskii, D.V. and Zharkov, I. I. (1961). Urea increases the nutritive value of straw, Vestn sel’skokhoz, Nauki, Vses.Akod. sel’skokhoz, Nauk. (3):66.

Fazaeli, H. , Tokasi, M. V. and Arjmand, S. (2003). Effect of urea-whey treatment on the chemical composition and digestibility of wheat straw. Proceeding of the British Society for Animal Science. pp. 165.

Guney, M. , Demirel, M. , Celik, S. , Yunus, B. and Taner, L. (2007). Effects of urea, molasses and urea plus molasses supplementation to sorghum silage on the silage quality, in vitro organic matter digestibility and metabolic energy contents. J. Bio. Sci. (7):401-404.

Gupta, M. L. and Pradhan, K. (1977). Chemical and biological evaluation of ensiled wheat straw, J. Dairy Sci. (60):1088.

Henderson, N. (1993). Silage Additive, J. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. (45):35-56.

Hiep, V. N., Wiktorsson, H. and Man, N. V. (2008). The effect of molasses on the quality of Kudzu silage and evaluation of feed intake and digestibility of diets supplemented with Kudzu silage or Kudzu hay by heifers, Live Res. Rural Develop. (20).

Itavo. L. C. V., Dos Santos, G. T., Jobim, C. C., Voltolini, T. V. and Ferreira, C. C. B. (2000). Replacement of corn silage by orange peel silage in the feeding of dairy cows, intake, milk production and composition. Rev.Brasi de Zoot. 29 (5), 1498-1503.

Kayouli, C. and Lee, S. (2000). Silage from by-products for small holders. In: Silage making in the tropics with particular emphasis on smallholders. Ed.’t Mannetje, L., FAO Plant Prod.Prot. (161): 85-95.

Keady, T. W. J. (1996). A review of the effect of molasses treatment of unwilled grass at ensiling on silage fermentation. Digestibility and intake, and on animal performance. Irish J. Agr. Food Res. (35) 141-149.

Khan, M.A. , Sarwar, M. , Nisa, M. , Bhatti, S. A. , Iqbal, Z.; Lee, W. S. , Lee, H. J. , Kim, H. S. and Ki, K. S. (2006). Feeding value of urea treated wheat straw ensiled with or without acidified molasses in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. (19):645-650.

Kholif, S. M., Abo-El-Nor, S. A. H. and Khorshed, M.M. (2007). Effect of adding some chemical agents to ensiled vegetable and fruit market wastes on silage quality and the performance of lactating goats. Inter. J. Dairy Sci. 2 (4), 312-320.

Kim, S. L. and Koch, P. L. (2012). Methods to collect, preserve, and prepare elasmobranch tissues for stable isotope analysis, J. Enviro. Bio. fish. 95:53-63.

Klopfenstein, T. J. (1978). Chemical treatment of crop residues. J. Ani. Sci. (46):841.

Lallo, F. H., Do Prado, I. N., Do Nascimento, W. G., Zeoula, L. M.; Moreira, F. B. and Wada, F. Y. (2003). Substitution levels of corn silage by pineapple by-products on ruminal degradability in beef cattle, Rev.Brasi de Zoot., 32 (3), 719-726.

Liu, J. and Guo, J. (2002). Animal production Based on crop Residues- Chinese Experiment, (FAO). Paper No (149).

Man, N. V. and Wiktorsson, H. (2001). Cassava tops ensiled with or without molasses as additive effect on quality, feed intake and digestibility by heifers. Asian-Aust. J. Ani. Sci. (14)5:624-630.

Man, N. V. and Wiktorsson, H. (2003). The effect of molasses on quality, feed intake and digestibility by heifers of silage made from cassava tops. International Workshop, Current research and development on use of cassava as animal feed, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.

McDonald, P., Henderson, A. R. and Heron, S. J. E. (1991). Biochemistry of Silage. (2nd edition), Chalcombe Publications, Harlow, UK.

McDonald, P., Edwards, R. A., Greenhalgh, J. F. D., Morgan, C. A. and Sinclari, R. G. (2010). Animal Nutrition (7th Edition). Longman Scientific a Technical. Harlow, England, UK.

Megias, M. D., Hernandez, F. , Cano, J. A., Martinez-Terual, A. and Gallego, J. A. (1998). Effects of different additives on the cell wall and mineral fractions of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) and orange (Citrus aurantium L) by-product silage. J. Sci. Food agric. 76: 173-178.

Merchen, N. R. and Satter, L. D. (1983). Digestion of nitrogen by lambs fed alfalfa conserved as baled hay or as low moisture silage. J. Anim. Sci. 56: 943.

Nisa, M., Touqir, N. A., Sarwar, M. , Khan, A. and Akhatar, M. (2005). Effect of additives and fermentation periods on chemical composition and in situ digestion kinetics of Mott grass (Pennisitum purpureum) silage. Asian-Austalian J. Anim. Sci. 18: 812-815.

Omoboyowa, D. A., Nwodo, O.F.C., Joshua, P.E. and Soniran, O.T. (2017). Anti-malaria activity of bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude ethanol extract of Tithonia diversifolia leaves. Niger. J. Parasitol., 38: 198-204.

Pirmohammadi, R., Rouzbehan, Y. , Reza Yazdi, K. and Zahedif, A. M. (2006). Chemical composition, digestibility and in situ degradability of dried and ensiled apple pomace and maize silage. Small Rum. Res. 66: 150-155.

Sarwar, M., Nisa, M., Khan, M. A. and Mushtaque, M. (2006). Chemical composition, herbage yield and nutritive value of Panicum antidotale and Pennisetum orientale for Nili buffaloes at different clipping intervals. Asian-Austalian J. Anim. Sci. 19:176-184.

Shultz, T. A., Ralston, A. T. and Shultz, E. (1974). Effect of various additives on nutritive value of ryegrass straw silage. I. Laboratory silo and in vitro dry matter digestion observations. J. Anim. Sci. 39: 920.

Snijders, P. J. M. and Wouters, A. P. (2004). Silage quality and losses due to ensiling of Napier grass, Columbus grass and Maize Stover under small holder conditions in Kenya. FAO Electronic Conference on Tropical Silage.

Steel, R. G. D. and Torrie, J. H. (1980). Principle and procedure of Statistical a Biometrical approach. 2nd Edn. , McGraw-Hill, New York, USA.

Tarkow, H. and Feist, W. C. (1969). A mechanism for improving the digestibility of lignocellutosic materials with dilute alkali and liquid ammonia. In: Cellulases and Their Applications. Advances in chemistry Series. American chemical society, No. 95, Washington USA.

Tilley, J. M. and Terry, R. A. (1963). Tow stage technique in vitro digestion of forage and crop. J. British grass land society (18):104 -111.

Tolera, A. and Sundstol, F. (2000). Supplementation of graded levels of Desmodium intortum hay to sheep feeding on maize stover harvested at three stages of maturity. 2. Rumen fermentation and nitrogen metabolism. J. Anim. Feed Sci. Techn. . 87: 215-229.

Tosi, H., Rodrigues, L. R., De, A. and Jobim, C. C. (1995). Ensilage does capim elephant cv. Mott sob deferent’s treatment. Rev.Brasi de Zoot., 24: 909- 916.

Touqir, N.A., Khan, M. A., Sarwar, M., Nisa, M., Lee, W. S. , Ki, K. S., Lee, H. J. and Kim, H. S. (2007). Feeding value of Jambo grass silage and Mott grass silage for lactating Nili buffaloes. Asian-Australian J. Anim. Sci. 20:523-528.

Wilkinson, J. M. (2005). Analysis and clinical assessment of silage, Chapter 19: Chalcombe Publications, UK.pp198-208.

Yunus, M., Ohba, N., Furuse, M. and Masuda, Y. (2000). Effects of adding urea and molasses on Napier grass silage quality. Asian-Australian J. Anim. Sci. 13:1542-1547.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN: 243456

U. of  K. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Prod.