First Report on mecC- positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains in the Sudan

Amani M. S. Alboshra, Enass M. Abdallah, Suleiman M. El Sanousi, Gusai H. Abdel-Samad, Mohamed T. Musa, Sharfi A. O. Ahmed, Reem M. A. Elsanousi, Kamal H. Eltom

Abstract


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been reported in many countries as a cause of human infections acquired in hospitals and in the community as well as a cause of animal infections; however, little is known about it in the Sudan, especially in animals and animal products. This study aimed mainly at investigating MRSA in liver abscesses of sheep, as many Sudanese consume raw livers. Intact liver abscesses were collected from sheep slaughtered in 3 abattoirs in Khartoum State and subjected to bacteriological culture for isolation and further molecular characterization of S. aureus. Out of 100 liver abscesses, only 4 S. aureus isolates were obtained, all of which were resistant to methicillin by the disc diffusion method, but the methicillin resistance gene (mecA) was detected in only one of them. When these isolates were tested with primers for the mecA gene novel analogue (mecC), 3 of them were positive, including the mecA positive one. PCR for amplification of haemolysin (hlg), Panton-Valentine lecukocidin (pvl) and toxic shock syndrome toxin (tsst) genes showed that one mecC- positive isolate was also positive for pvl, but neither hlg nor tsst was detected in any of these isolates. The results of this study are of public health importance because of the potential zoonotic transmission of mecC- positive S. aureus strains. Furthermore, this is the first report of mecC- positive MRSA strains in the Sudan.


Keywords


liver abscess; MRSA; mecA; mecC; hlg; pvl; tsst

Full Text:

PDF

References


Barrow, G. I. and Feltham, R. K. A. (1993). Cowan and Steel's manual for the identification of medical bacteria, 3rd Ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Brakstad, O. G., Aasbakk, K. and Maeland, J. A. (1992). Detection of Staphylococcus aureus by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the nuc gene. J. Clin. Microbiol., 30: 1654−1660.

Carilli, Ş., Emre, A., Berke, E. and Çalangu, S. (1999). Liver abscess secondary to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Hpb., 1: 227-229.

Chambers, H. F. and Deleo, F. R. (2009). Waves of resistance: Staphylococcus aureus in the antibiotic era. Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 7: 629−641.

Cherian, J., Singh, R., Varma, M., Vidyasagar, S. and Mukhopadhyay, C. (2016). Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Pyogenic Liver Abscess: A Case Report. J. Investig. Med. High. Impact. Case Rep., 4: 2324709616660576.

da Cunha Mde, L., Calsolari, R. A. and Junior, J. P. (2007). Detection of enterotoxin and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 genes in Staphylococcus, with emphasis on coagulase-negative staphylococci. Microbiol. Immunol., 51: 381−390.

El Sanousi, S. M., Said, K. B., Elbager, S., Awad, A., Rodwan, K. and Eltom, K. H. (2015). A flow chart for the identification of Staphylococcus species. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Prod. 6: 93−97.

Elhassan, M. M., Ozbak, H. A., Hemeg, H. A., Elmekki, M. A. and Ahmed, L. M. (2015). Absence of the mecA gene in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Different clinical specimens in Shendi City, Sudan. Biomed. Res. Int., 2015: 895860.

Farzana, K., Shah, S. N. H. and Jabeen, F. (2004). Antibiotic resistance pattern against various isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from raw milk samples. J Res (Science) Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan, 15: 419−427.

García-Álvarez, L., Holden, M. T. G., Lindsay, H., Webb, C. R., Brown, D. F. J., Curran, M. D., Walpole, E., Brooks, K., Pickard, D. J., Teale, C., Parkhill, J., Bentley, S. D., Edwards, G. F., Girvan, E. K., Kearns, A. M., Pichon, B., Hill, R. L. R., Larsen, A. R., Skov, R. L., Peacock, S. J., Maskell, D. J. and Holmes, M. A. (2011). Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a novel mecA homologue in human and bovine populations in the UK and Denmark: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect. Dis., 11: 595−603.

Gezu, M. and Addis, M. (2014). Causes of Liver and Lung Condemnation among Apparently Healthy Slaughtered Sheep and Goats at Luna Abbattoir, Modjo, Ethiopia. Adv. Biol. Res., 8: 251−256.

Ghadrdan-Mashhadi, A., Gorban-Poor, M. and Soleimani, M. (2006). Bacteriological study of liver abscesses in sheep in Ahvaz (Iran). Pakist. J. Biol. Sci., 9: 2162−2164.

Gillet, Y., Issartel, B., Vanhems, P., Fournet, J.-C., Lina, G., Bes, M., Vandenesch, F., Piémont, Y., Brousse, N. and Floret, D. (2002). Association between Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying gene for Panton-Valentine leukocidin and highly lethal necrotising pneumonia in young immunocompetent patients. The Lancet 359: 753−759.

Harrison, E. M., Paterson, G. K., Holden, M. T., Larsen, J., Stegger, M., Larsen, A. R., Petersen, A., Skov, R. L., Christensen, J. M., Bak Zeuthen, A., Heltberg, O., Harris, S. R., Zadoks, R. N., Parkhill, J., Peacock, S. J. and Holmes, M. A. (2013). Whole genome sequencing identifies zoonotic transmission of MRSA isolates with the novel mecA homologue mecC. EMBO Mol. Med., 5: 509−515.

Katayama, Y., Ito, T. and Hiramatsu, K. (2000). A new class of genetic element, Staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec, encodes methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44: 1549−1555.

Lee, J. H. (2003). Methicillin (Oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from major food animals and their potential transmission to humans. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 69: 6489−6494.

Lina, G., Piemont, Y., Godail-Gamot, F., Bes, M., Peter, M. O., Gauduchon, V., Vandenesch, F. and Etienne, J. (1999). Involvement of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia. Clin. Infect. Dis., 29 : 1128−1132.

Martineau, F., Picard, F. J., Ke, D., Paradis, S., Roy, P. H., Ouellette, M., Bergeron, M. G. (2001). Development of a PCR assay for identification of staphylococci at genus and species levels. J. Clin. Microbiol., 39: 2541−2547.

Musa, K. A. A. (2007). The Prevailing Causes of Sheep Liver Condemnations in Nyala North Abattoir. MVSc Thesis, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

Olayinka, B. O., Olayinka, A. T., Obajuluwa, A. F., Onaolapo, J. A. and Olurinola, P. F. (2009). Absence of mecA gene in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Afr. J. Infect. Dis., 3: 49−56.

Paterson, G. K., Larsen, A., Robb, A., Edwards, G., Pennycott, T., Foster, G., Mot, D., Hermans, K., Baert, K. and Peacock, S. (2012). The newly described mecA homologue, mecA LGA251, is present in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a diverse range of host species. J Antimicrob. Chemother., 67: 2809−2813.

Prax, M., Lee, C. Y. and Bertram, R. (2013). An update on the molecular genetics toolbox for staphylococci. Microbiology, 159: 421−435.

Reynolds, P. E. and Brown, D. F. J. (1985). Penicillin-binding proteins of β-lactam-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. FEBS Lett., 192: 28−32.

Shore, A. C., Deasy, E. C., Slickers, P., Brennan, G., O'Connell, B., Monecke, S., Ehricht, R. and Coleman, D. C. (2011). Detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type XI carrying highly divergent mecA, mecI, mecR1, blaZ, and ccr genes in human clinical isolates of clonal complex 130 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55: 3765−3773.

Steinman, A., Masarwa, S., Tirosh-Levy, S., Gleser, D., Kelmer, G., Adler, A., Carmeli, Y. and Schwaber, M. J. (2015). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus spa Type t002 Outbreak in Horses and Staff at a Veterinary Teaching Hospital after Its Presumed Introduction by a Veterinarian. J. Clin. Microbiol., 53: 2827−2831.

Strommenger, B., Kettlitz, C., Werner, G. and Witte, W. (2003). Multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of nine clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Clin. Microbiol., 41: 4089−4094.

Turlej, A., Hryniewicz, W. and Empel, J. (2011). Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (Sccmec) classification and typing methods: an overview. Pol. J. Microbiol., 60: 95−103.

Utsui, Y. and Yokota, T. (1985). Role of an altered penicillin-binding protein in methicillin- and cephem-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 28: 397−403.

Zhang, C., Guo, L., Chu, X., Shen, L., Guo, Y., Dong, H., Mao, J. and van der Veen, S. (2016). Presence of the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Genes in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Is Associated with Severity and Clinical Outcome of Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia in a Single Center Study in China. PLoS One, 11: e0156704.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN: 243456

U. of  K. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Prod.