Effect of Addition of Two Levels of Urea on Nutritional Value of Molasses Treated Tomato Straw Silage

A. A. Hamid Abied, R. I. Ahmed, T. A. Eltyib, A. G. Mahala

Abstract


The aim of this study was to determine the nutritive value of tomato straw ensiled for one month with two levels of urea and level of molasses, 0.0% urea +5%molasses (control), 3% urea +5%molasses, and 6% urea +5%molasses. Chemical composition of all treatments was determined by laboratory analysis; an in vitro two stages digestibility was carried out and physical character of the silage have been measured. The data was subjected to analysis of variance using complete randomized design (CRD). The study  showed that the final pH was decreased and  temperature were increased not significantly (p>0.05) while crude protein was increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase level of urea and due to incubation from  9.8%, 14.21% and 19.3% in the control, 3% and 6% urea after fermentation respectively. While crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were decreased significantly (p<0.05), acid detergent lignin slightly decreased. The in vitro dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were improved significantly (p<0.05) by addition of urea and fermentation. This study concluded that the addition of urea and fermentation improve the nutritive value of tomato straw silages in terms of high protein, low fiber contents and increased digestibility and recommended addition of different levels of molasses and urea in straws silage to improve digestibility.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Abarghoei, M.; Rouzbehan, Y. and Alipour. D. (2011). .Nutritive value and silage characteristics of whole and partly stoned olive cakes treated with molasses. J. Agri. Sci. Tchnol., 13:907-716.

AOAC (1990). Official Method of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Pp. 66-88.15th edition. Washington, DC. USA.

BAPH (Bureau of Animal Production and Health) (1996). Criteria for Evaluation of the silage quality (Trial execution). BAPH, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing/cited in Guo Tingshuang (2002) Animal production and health paper No 149.

Baytok, E.; Aksu, T.; Karsli, M. A. and Muruz, M. (2005). The Effects of Formic Acid, Molasses and Inoculants as Silage Additives on Corn Silage Composition and Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics in Sheep. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 29: 469-474.

Du Preez, M. (1983) Hidrolise, nitrifikasie en vervlugtiging van ureum onder gekontroleerde toestande in dominante grondtipes van die Wes-Kaap. MSc-verhandeling, Universiteit van Stellenbosc.

Elkhidir. O.A. (2014). Animal feed industry in Sudan. The diamond Jubilee Faculty of veterinary medicine. U. of K. -Sudan.1938-2013 p: 22.

Gohl, B. (1981). Tropical Feeds. FAO Animal Production and Health Series No. 12. FAO, Rome, pp.529.

Hadijipanayiotou, M.; Labban, LM.; Kronfoleh, A.R.; Verhaeghe, L.; Naigm, T.; Al-Wadi, M. and Amin, M. (1993). Studies on the use of dried poultry manure in ruminant diets in Syria. Livestock Research for rural development, Nicosia Bull, No. 155.

Saadullah, M.; Haque, M. and Dolberg, F. (1981). Treated and untreated rice straw to growing cattle. In: Proceedings of the Second Annual Seminar on Maximum Livestock Production from Minimum Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. pp. 136-155.

Lang, R.A. (1991). Principles and Practices of Feeding Tropical Crops and By-Products to Ruminant. Armidale: Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, University of New England.

Lindgren, S.; Peterson.,P.; Kaspersson, A.; Jonsson, A. and lingaval, P. (1985). Microbial dynamics during aerobic deterioration of silage .J. Sci Food Agriculture, 36:765-774.

Maynard, L. A. and. Loosly, J. K. (1979). Animal Nutrition. 7th Ed, Logman. Grope Ltd, London.

Mc Donald, P.; Hendeson N. and Heron S. (1991). Introduction. In. the Biochemistry of silage 2nd Ed.

Marlow, UK: Chalcombe publication , England 9-18.

Mc Donald, P.E.; Dwards, R.; Greenhalgh J.F.D. and Morgan C.A. (1995). Animal nutrition (5th ed). England.

Muck, R.E. (1993a). Ensiling and its effect on crop quality. Porc. National silage production conference, Syracuse. New York. Pp.57-66.

Muck, R.E (1993b). The role of silage additivs in making high quality silage. Porc. National silage production conference, Syracuse. New York. Pp. 106-116.

Nog, Van Man and Hans, Wiktoresson (1999). The effect of molasses on quality, feed intake and digestibility by heifers of silage made from cassava tops in department of animal nutrition, UAF, Thu. Duc, HO. Chi, Minh, city Vietnam. Swedish University of Agriculture Science .Uppsala, Sweden.

Ortiz, L. T.; Centeno, C. and Trevino, J. (1993).Tannins in faba bean seeds: effects on the digestion of protein and amino acids in growing chicks. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 41:27l-278.

Robertson, J. B. and Van Soest, P. J. (1981). The Detergent System of Analysis and its Application to Human Foods. In: "The Analysis of Dietary Fiber in Food". (Eds.): James, W. P. T., Theander, O., Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, pp. 123–158 (Chapter 9).

Sarwar, M.; Khan, M. A. and Nisa, M. (2004). Effect of urea treated wheat straw ensiled with organic acids or fermentable carbohydrates on ruminal parameters, digestion kinetics, digestibility and nitrogen metabolism in Nili Ravi buffalo bulls fed restricted diets. Austr. J. Agric. Research, 1: 87.

Siichi, C. (2005). Director of feed division, I wate station. National livestock breeding center, incorporated administrative agency.

Silva, A. T. and Ørskov, E.R. (1988). The effect of five different supplements on the degradation of straw in sheep given untreated barley straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 19:289-298.

Steel, R. G. D. and Torrie, J.H. (1996). Principles and procedures of statistics. 2nded. Mc Graw- Hill Book Co. Inc., New York, USA.

Tilley, J.M.A. and Terry, R.A. (1963). A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. J. Br. Grass land. Soc., 18: 104–111.

Van Soest P.J.; Robretson, J.D. and Lewis, B.A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, natural detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation of animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci., 74: 3583-3597.

Weiss, W.P.; Forbose, D.L and Koch, M.E. (1997). Wet tomato pomace ensiled with corn plants for dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 80: 2996-2900.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN: 243456

U. of  K. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Prod.