Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production <p>The journal welcomes concise papers reporting original research work in all disciplines of veterinary medicine, animal production, natural resources, environmental sciences and related new scientific technologies</p> University of Khartoum en-US Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production Chronology of Veterinary Services Delivery, Basic Infrastructure and Educational Institutions in Sudan <p>Sudan is one of the countries in Africa, which received veterinary services early of the first decades of nineteenth century. Although a fixed date is not known, but what realized by many experts, those three veterinarians entered the country accompanying colonial military campaign; form the beginning of veterinary services, which were later diversified and known to include clinical services, veterinary extension and animal production. Furthermore, the governing authorities began to think of administrative organo-structures to manage animals and provide actual needs and requirements of veterinary services and animal health. Implementation of PARC ended in upgrading of field veterinary services and hence provoked eradication of Rinderpest and control of other Trans boundary Animal Diseases (TADs) and non-TADs incidences. It is clear that through the significant contributions of the international community, veterinary services were able to achieve much in short period. The achievement also supported by the national governments through provision of counterpart funds equivalent to and sometimes exceeding that provided by donors. The country started earlier in 1974 to develop the disease free zone with other basic infrastructures, which assisted the veterinary services to promote livestock trade. The concept of provision and distribution of mobile units all over the country contributed to the improvement of field veterinary services and consolidated relationship between the veterinary services and other livestock stakeholders including livestock owners and traders. Veterinary services in the country built strong base for legislation in different aspect of service delivery and standards.</p> Hassan A. M Al Malik K. H Abdel Aziz M. A Al Faki K. M Abdel Razig Y. M Angra T. K Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 9 2 Effect of fattening on the Development of Abscess Disease in Sheep and Growth of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. Anaerobius <p>The present study was designed to investigate factors related to fattened sheep that affect the growth of<em> Staphylococcus aureus </em>subsp<em>. anaerobius</em> (Sasa) and enhance its pathogenicity. The pH of sweat, cholesterol levels in sweat and sera of fattened and un-fattened sheep were measured and the effect of sera from fattened sheep on the growth of Sasa was studied. Fattened and un-fattened lambs were subjected to experimental infection using a strain of Sasa. The pH of the sweat of un-fattened group ranged between 5.0 and 6.0, while in fattened group it ranged from 6.2 to 7.6. Serum cholesterol level was significantly higher in fattened group (74.06 ± 5.56 mg/ dl) than in un-fattened group (43.00 ± 6.66 mg/ dl). Serum from fattened sheep promoted the growth of Sasa more than serum from un-fattened sheep. In experimental inoculation of sheep with this bacteria, abscesses developed in parotid lymph nodes and livers of all fattened animals (N = 6) and in 50% (N=3) of un-fattened animals and the size of the abscess positively co-related with the weight of the animal. The study concluded that changes in the blood and skin chemistry of fattened sheep enhance the growth of <em>S</em>. <em>aureus</em> subsp<em>. </em><em>anaerobius</em> and thus its ability of infection leading to abscess formation.</p> Abdulkhalig Babiker Khalid Rodwan Kamal H. Eltom Sulieman M. El Sanousi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production 2021-08-19 2021-08-19 9 2 First Report on mecC- positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains in the Sudan <p>Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been reported in many countries as a cause of human infections acquired in hospitals and in the community as well as a cause of animal infections; however, little is known about it in the Sudan, especially in animals and animal products. This study aimed mainly at investigating MRSA in liver abscesses of sheep, as many Sudanese consume raw livers. Intact liver abscesses were collected from sheep slaughtered in 3 abattoirs in Khartoum State and subjected to bacteriological culture for isolation and further molecular characterization of S. aureus. Out of 100 liver abscesses, only 4 S. aureus isolates were obtained, all of which were resistant to methicillin by the disc diffusion method, but the methicillin resistance gene (<em>mecA</em>) was detected in only one of them. When these isolates were tested with primers for the <em>mecA</em> gene novel analogue (<em>mecC</em>), 3 of them were positive, including the mecA positive one. PCR for amplification of haemolysin (hlg), Panton-Valentine lecukocidin (pvl) and toxic shock syndrome toxin (tsst) genes showed that one <em>mecC</em>- positive isolate was also positive for pvl, but neither hlg nor tss<em>t</em> was detected in any of these isolates. The results of this study are of public health importance because of the potential zoonotic transmission of <em>mecC</em>- positive <em>S</em>.<em> aureus</em> strains. Furthermore, this is the first report of <em>mecC-</em> positive MRSA strains in the Sudan.</p> Amani M. S. Alboshra Enass M. Abdallah Suleiman M. El Sanousi Gusai H. Abdel-Samad Mohamed T. Musa Sharfi A. O. Ahmed Reem M. A. Elsanousi Kamal H. Eltom Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 9 2 Use of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Seeds in Diets for Fattening Lambs <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding diets with different levels of whole watermelon seeds on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs. Thirty 6-month old lambs of Sudan desert sheep with an average weight of 33.8 Kg were used in this study. They were randomly divided into three groups (n=10) and assigned into three treatment diets with different levels of watermelon seeds (WS) for 52 days. The diets were WS0, WS10, or WS20, which contained 0% (control), 10% and 20% watermelon seeds, respectively. The results showed that final live weight, daily weight gain and total weight gain, hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight and chiller shrinkage were higher (P &lt; 0.05) in WS0 and WS20 groups compared to WS10 group. Feed conversion ratio was higher (P &lt; 0.05) in sheep fed WS10 compared to sheep fed WS0. Treatment diets did not affect carcass composition (muscle, fat and bone) and meat chemical composition. However, water-holding capacity and cooking loss were significantly different among the treatment groups, where lambs fed on WS10 had inferior water-holding capacity and higher cooking loss. Treatment diets had no significant effect on meat lightness (L*); but redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values were significantly higher in WS0 group compared to WS10 and WS20 groups. Shear force value was lower (P &lt; 0.05) in WS10 compared to WS0 and WS20. It was concluded that inclusion of whole watermelon seeds up to 20% in lamb diets supported sufficient feedlot performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.</p> Heddia B. Yassein K. Abuelfatah S. A. Babiker Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 9 2 Effects of Different Stunning Voltages and Season on Broiler Carcass Defects and Condemnation in Slaughterhouses in Khartoum State <p>The aim of this study was to provide information on the influence of stunning voltage on broiler carcass quality and to investigate the effect of year season (winter, summer and autumn) on the percentage of causes of carcasses condemnation in nine poultry slaughterhouses located in Khartoum state. The data were collected by the Veterinary Inspection Services of the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Rescores and Irrigation, in 2016. The commercial poultry slaughterhouses use different stunning voltages. According to the stunning voltage used the treatments were divided into three groups, Group 1: 25mA, Group 2: 35mA and Group3: 45mA. The influence of electrical stunning voltage on apparent carcasses defects (breast muscle hemorrhage, red wing tips, broken bone, and bleeding) was studied. Also the effect of year season on causes of carcasses condemnation was recorded. Complete randomized design with factorial arrangement was used, each treatment group was replicated 3 times. The collected data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results revealed that high stunning voltage at 45 mA significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the breast muscle hemorrhages, red wing tips, bleeding and resulted in a better carcass quality compared to other applied voltages (25mA, and 35mA). The different seasons were found to have significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on percentage of causes carcasses condemnations. The percentage of carcass condemned with breast muscle hemorrhage and red wing tips were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower in winter compared to summer and autumn. The incidence of condemned carcasses was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) high (0.50%) in summer and autumn (0.45%) while significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower percentage values were recorded in winter (0.13%). The study concluded that carcasses defects were reduced when (45mA) stunning voltage versus 25- 35mA was used and the lowest percentage of carcasses condemned were observed during winter season. The usage of high stunning voltage is recommended for better carcass quality.</p> Hind A. A. Elagib Hiba A. Ismail Bakhait M. Dousa Khalid M. Elamin Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 9 2 Phenotypic and Production System Characterization of Sudanese Watish Desert Sheep in Sinnar State, Sudan <p>This research was conducted to contribute to establishing base line data for the phenotypic characterization of Watish sheep and their production system for future conservation and improvements efforts. A semi-structured questionnaire, field observations and linear body measurements were used to gather information from 59 Watish sheep owners in 7 villages. Body measurements were collected on 156 individuals and the data were classified according to sex and age. Gathered data were summarized and analyzed mainly in the form of descriptive statistics. Watish sheep were found to be produced under a nomadic system (81.4%), a sedentary system (8.5%) or a semi nomadic system (10.2%). Supplementary feeding was adopted by 67.2% of owners and of those, 26.3% fed concentrates supplements. Most owners (81.0%) raised breeding rams from own flock while 17.3% borrowed rams from neighbouring flocks. The main production constraints were water (25.0%), feed (20.6%), disease (19.6%), capital (18.1%), and security (16.7%). The highest mortality rate among all classes of animals, particularly, new born lambs and nursing ewes occurred in dry summer. The overall mean of body length, heart girth, barrel circumference, height at withers and tail length were 63.87±0.48, 81.25±0.66, 93.61±0.87, 76.51±0.42 and 62.37±0.6, respectively. All correlations were positive and significant between different morphometric measurements. No association were observed between the sharing of management by family members (χ<sup>2 </sup>= 3.333), breeding system(χ<sup>2</sup>=1.262), concentrate provision(χ<sup>2</sup>=5.276), vaccination (χ<sup>2</sup>=1.280) and record keeping (χ<sup>2 </sup>= 0.811) and education level of owners. However, there was a significant association between purpose of rearing sheep (χ<sup>2</sup>=17.524) and disease occurrence (χ<sup>2</sup>=11.058) and level of education of owners. A highly significant association was observed between identification method and education level (χ<sup>2</sup>=18.133). This study highlights the need for greater control of environmental factors in order to improve Watish sheep production.</p> Sara E. Ibrahim Mohamed Romaz M. A. Omer L. M. A. Musa Khaleel I. Z. Jawasreh Mohammed-Khair A. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 9 2 Effect of the Physiological Status on the Haematological Parameters of Female Camels (Camelus dromedarius) <p>The objective of the study was to assess the effect of the physiological status (age, late pregnancy and early lactation) on the haematological parameters in female dromedary camels under a semi-intensive system. Twenty-two healthy female camels (Age: 3-16 years) were used. The animals were divided into 4 groups: control group: non-pregnant non-lactating (5 animals, age: 8-16 years), pregnant (5 animals, age: 11-16 years, number of parities: 2-3), lactating (5 animals, age: 11-16 years, number of parities: 2-3) and young females (7 animals, age: 3-5 years). Blood samples were collected once by jugular venepuncture and used for the determination of haematological parameters (total erythrocytes and leukocytes counts: TEC and TLC, haemoglobin: Hb, blood haematocrit: HCT, mean corpuscular volume: MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin: MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration: MCHC) using Automated Haematology analyzer. The physiological status had a significant (P≤0.05) effect on TEC, [Hb], neutrophils lymphocytes and monocytes percentage while HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, TLC, eosinophils and basophils percentage were not changed significantly. The TEC decreased significantly (P≤0.05) in young female camels compared to the control, pregnant and lactating camels. Blood-[Hb] increased significantly (P&lt;0.05) during late pregnancy and decreased (P&lt;0.05) in young females compared to the control and early lactation. Neutrophils percentage increased significantly (P&lt;0.05) during early lactation and decreased (P&lt;0.05) during late pregnancy compared to the control and young females. Lymphocytes percentage increased (P˂0.05) during late pregnancy compared to early lactation, whereas monocytes percentage increased (P˂0.05) in young females compared to the control, late pregnancy and early lactation. The physiological status had a negative influence on the haematological parameters in female camels. The data could be utilized to assess the metabolic profile in growing, pregnant and lactating female camels.</p> Nawal M. Elkhair Ahmad A. Minawy Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 9 2 A Business Preview of Production Strategies in Private Small Scale Ice Cream Shops in Khartoum State Sudan <p>The aim of this study was to profile certain production strategies implemented by small scale private Ice-cream shops in Khartoum state, Sudan from a business perspective. The research relied upon primary data collection via performing a cross-sectional scientific questionnaire targeting senior managers in private Ice cream shops. Sample of the study covered a total of 30 shops stratified based on researches’ study criteria and located in different geographical areas in Khartoum state. Collected data was analyzed using SPSS(ver.11.5) to obtain frequency of distributions. Main results showed that 58.3% of the participants produced soft ice cream; 41.6% of the shops used both fresh milk and powdered milk in production; 54.2% of fresh milk user shops stated they purchased fresh milk directly from farms; 62.7% used both natural and artificial flavors; 45.8% assured vanilla was the most used flavor; 50% of the shops stated they used both biscuit cones and plastic cups in packaging. The study recommended business men to exert more effort when considering production parameters related to this enterprise where scientifically structured business plans are to be performed to balance between inputs and outputs of this industry to reclaim good profit and insure best quality products.</p> Salma M. S. Ali Nahid M.T. Fawi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 9 2